Skip to main content
Select Source:

Trochu, Louis Jules

Louis Jules Trochu (lwē zhül trôshü´), 1815–96, French general. He fought in Algeria, in the Crimean War, and in the Italian war of 1859. In L'Armée française en 1867 (1867), he criticized the French army and urged its reorganization. He was military governor of Paris when the Franco-Prussian War broke out (1870). He did not attempt to prevent the overthrow, at Paris, of the Second Empire after the French rout at Sedan (Sept., 1870), and he accepted the presidency of the government of national defense, hoping to conduct an honorable rather than a victorious defense. Trochu's inactivity in defense of Paris was severely criticized. He resigned after the capitulation of Paris in Jan., 1871. He wrote several volumes of apologia.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Trochu, Louis Jules." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 23 Feb. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Trochu, Louis Jules." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 23, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/trochu-louis-jules

"Trochu, Louis Jules." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved February 23, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/trochu-louis-jules

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Vierne, Louis (Victor Jules)

Vierne, Louis (Victor Jules) (b Poitiers, 1870; d Paris, 1937). Fr. organist and composer, born blind, but had limited sight after operation in 1877. Org., Nôtre Dame de Paris 1900–37. Taught org., Paris Cons. 1894–1911; prof. of org., Schola Cantorum, Paris, from 1912. Toured Europe and USA as org. recitalist. Wrote 6 org. syms. (1898–1930) and shorter pieces for org., also mass, str. qt., vn. sonata, vc. sonata, pf. quintet, and an orch. sym. (1907–8). Died playing org. at Notre Dame.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Vierne, Louis (Victor Jules)." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Encyclopedia.com. 23 Feb. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Vierne, Louis (Victor Jules)." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 23, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/vierne-louis-victor-jules

"Vierne, Louis (Victor Jules)." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Retrieved February 23, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/vierne-louis-victor-jules

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.