Sunderland, Robert Spencer, 2d earl of
Robert Spencer Sunderland, 2d earl of, 1641–1702, English statesman. He succeeded to the earldom in 1643. During the reign of Charles II he served on various diplomatic missions and in 1679 was made a secretary of state. His support of the bill to exclude the duke of York (later James II) from the succession resulted in his dismissal (1681), but he quickly regained his position through the influence of the king's mistress, the duchess of Portsmouth. Under James II he gained favor by urging severe repression of the rebellion of the duke of Monmouth and by his support for the abolition of the religious tests. He was made lord president of the council (1685), and by intrigue he supplanted the earl of Rochester as chief minister. In 1688 he declared himself a Roman Catholic, but he soon argued with James on religious policy and was dismissed. He fled to Holland, convinced William of Orange (later William III) that he had supported his interests, and, after William's accession to the English throne, was allowed to return (1691) to England. He renounced his Catholicism and became an influential adviser of William. It was Sunderland who persuaded the king to abandon a mixed ministry and employ only Whigs—a significant (if unintentional) step in English constitutional development. He was appointed lord chamberlain in 1697 but was forced out of office by a distrustful Parliament.
"Sunderland, Robert Spencer, 2d earl of." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/sunderland-robert-spencer-2d-earl
"Sunderland, Robert Spencer, 2d earl of." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved September 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/sunderland-robert-spencer-2d-earl
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.
Sunderland, Robert Spencer, 2nd earl of
"Sunderland, Robert Spencer, 2nd earl of." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/sunderland-robert-spencer-2nd-earl
"Sunderland, Robert Spencer, 2nd earl of." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved September 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/sunderland-robert-spencer-2nd-earl