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Baliol, John de (1249–1315, king of Scotland)

John de Baliol, 1249–1315, king of Scotland (1292–96), son of John de Baliol (d. 1269). He became head of the family after the death of his elder brothers in 1278. At the death of Margaret Maid of Norway (1290), he claimed the Scottish throne through his grandmother, eldest daughter of David of Huntingdon, brother of King William the Lion. His principal rival was Robert the Bruce, of the celebrated Bruce family, son of David of Huntingdon's second daughter and hence one generation closer to his royal ancestor, although through a younger line. The laws of succession not being firmly established, the question was referred to Edward I of England, who first demanded and secured (1291) recognition as feudal overlord of Scotland. Edward decided in favor of Baliol, who was then crowned king (1292) and did homage to Edward for the kingdom. Baliol, after some hesitation, accepted Edward's asserted right to hear appeals from Scottish courts. However, when he attended Edward's Parliament at Westminster in late 1293, he refused to answer such an appeal. The Scottish council subsequently disregarded Edward's summons for help against France and formed (1295) an alliance with Philip IV of France. Early in 1296 the Scots invaded England, and as Edward marched north to take Berwick, Baliol renounced his oath of fealty to the English king. However, after defeat in a brief campaign, in which he took no active part, Baliol surrendered to Edward. He was imprisoned in England until 1299 and ended his days on his estates in France, ignoring the continuing struggle for Scottish independence.

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Baliol, John de (d. 1269, founder of Balliol College, Oxford)

John de Baliol, d. 1269, nobleman with lands in both England and Scotland; founder of Balliol College, Oxford. The name is also spelled Balliol. In 1249 he became a member of the Scottish council of regency and a guardian of Alexander III. However, he was apparently disliked by the young king and was discharged and heavily fined in 1255. He fought for Henry III of England in the Barons' War and was taken prisoner at the battle of Lewes (1264). His third son, another John, became king of Scotland.

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