John Campbell 1st earl of Breadalbane

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Breadalbane, John Campbell, 1st earl of [S] (1635–1717). Campbell took part in Middleton's rising in 1653, which was defeated by Monck. He obtained his peerage in a curious way, becoming creditor to the earl of Caithness, on whose death he was given estates and title, and married the widow. When in 1681 the Privy Council decided in favour of Caithness's male heir, Campbell was compensated with a new title as earl of Breadalbane. In 1689, though sympathetic to James II, he made his peace with William after Killiecrankie and from 1692 to 1696 was a lord of the Treasury [S]. He was much involved in the negotiations which led to the proclamation of August 1691 and the subsequent Glencoe massacre, though a later inquiry cleared him. He did not take part in the discussions on the Union, though he served as a representative peer 1713–15. In 1715 he sent some of his men to join Mar's rising, but escaped punishment, perhaps because he was 80 years of age. He was described as cheerful and agreeable, but Macky wrote that he was ‘wise as a serpent, and as slippery as an eel’.

J. A. Cannon

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John Campbell Breadalbane, 1st earl of (brədôl´bĬn, brĕd–), 1635?–1717, Scottish nobleman. He took part in the royalist rising of 1654 and helped George Monck to further the restoration (1660) of Charles II. In 1688 he privately supported James II, but he did not commit himself openly and took advantage of the Act of Indemnity to swear allegiance to William III (1689). His strong position among the highland clans made him a useful intermediary in negotiating the submission of the chiefs in 1691. He has been blamed for instigating the massacre of the MacDonalds of Glencoe (1692), allegedly using their failure to submit on time as a pretext for settling old scores with that clan. He took no active part in negotiating the Act of Union (1707) but was a representative peer in the united Parliament (1713–15). He gave nominal support only to the Jacobite rebellion of 1715.