Northumberland, Henry Percy, 1st earl of

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Northumberland, Henry Percy, 1st earl of (1341–1408). Heir to the 3rd Lord Percy of Alnwick, Percy's military career began in France under Dukes Henry and John of Lancaster; he remained a political associate of the latter, John of Gaunt. He was created earl at Richard II's coronation in 1377. In 1381 his (second) marriage to the heiress of Thomas Lucy of Cockermouth (Cumberland) made him the predominant magnate in the border counties. Gaunt's appointment as lieutenant in the marches led to a breach, from which Northumberland emerged as sole warden in both marches in 1384, after which either he or his son Hotspur ( Henry Percy) usually held one of the wardenships. They won both in 1399 as one of many rewards for their key role in Henry IV's usurpation. Fearing this regional hegemony was threatened, they revolted in 1403. Prevented from joining Hotspur, Northumberland survived to instigate Archbishop Scrope's rebellion; on its collapse he fled to Scotland and was deemed forfeit. He was killed in a skirmish at Bramham Moor (Yorks.).

R. L. Storey

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Henry Percy 1st earl of Northumberland

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