Henry Percy 1st earl of Northumberland

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Northumberland, Henry Percy, 1st earl of (1341–1408). Heir to the 3rd Lord Percy of Alnwick, Percy's military career began in France under Dukes Henry and John of Lancaster; he remained a political associate of the latter, John of Gaunt. He was created earl at Richard II's coronation in 1377. In 1381 his (second) marriage to the heiress of Thomas Lucy of Cockermouth (Cumberland) made him the predominant magnate in the border counties. Gaunt's appointment as lieutenant in the marches led to a breach, from which Northumberland emerged as sole warden in both marches in 1384, after which either he or his son Hotspur ( Henry Percy) usually held one of the wardenships. They won both in 1399 as one of many rewards for their key role in Henry IV's usurpation. Fearing this regional hegemony was threatened, they revolted in 1403. Prevented from joining Hotspur, Northumberland survived to instigate Archbishop Scrope's rebellion; on its collapse he fled to Scotland and was deemed forfeit. He was killed in a skirmish at Bramham Moor (Yorks.).

R. L. Storey

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Henry Percy Northumberland, 1st earl of, 1342–1408, English nobleman. He fought in France in the Hundred Years War, became warden of the Scottish Marches, and was a supporter of John Wyclif. Created earl of Northumberland by Richard II in 1377, he and his son Sir Henry Percy (Hotspur) were engaged in constant warfare with the Scots. He was a leading supporter of Henry of Lancaster (Henry IV) in the usurpation of 1399, but with his brother, Thomas Percy, earl of Worcester, and Hotspur, Northumberland revolted against the king in 1403. He submitted after the death of his son at the battle of Shrewsbury in the same year. By 1405, however, he was plotting again with Owen Glendower and, after fleeing to Scotland and France, invaded (1408) England from the north with the expectation of recruiting followers. He was slain and his forces were defeated at Bramham Moor.

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