Skip to main content
Select Source:

Gruffydd ap Llywelyn

Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (d. 1063), king of Gwynedd and Powys (1039–63). The son of Llywelyn ap Seisyll, king of Gwynedd, and Angharad, the king of Deheubarth's daughter, Gruffydd created a personal dominion over much of Wales in alliance with English and Scandinavians. He was later said to be slow and listless as a youth, but he grew into an ambitious warlord who won Gwynedd and Powys in battle (1039) and defeated the Mercians on the river Severn. His conquests in Deheubarth took longer (1040–55), during which he slew two of its kings. His alliance with Earl Ælfgar of Mercia, whose daughter he married, sustained a long struggle with Harold Godwineson (later Harold II), and Bishop Leofgar of Hereford also led an army against him (1056). To a Welsh chronicler he was ‘the head and shield and defender of the Britons’. Harold's attack on Gruffydd's court at Rhuddlan (1062) caused him to flee, and soon afterwards (5 August 1063) he was killed by his own men; his territorial dominion collapsed at the same time.

Ralph Alan Griffiths

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Gruffydd ap Llywelyn." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Feb. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Gruffydd ap Llywelyn." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gruffydd-ap-llywelyn

"Gruffydd ap Llywelyn." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved February 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gruffydd-ap-llywelyn

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Gruffydd ap Llywelyn

Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (grĬf´Ĭŧħ äp hləwĕl´Ĭn, lōōĕl´Ĭn), d. 1063, ruler of Wales (1039–63). A series of campaigns against other Welsh princes made him the ruler of virtually all Wales. Allied with the outlawed Ælfgar of Mercia, he launched a series of raids into W England, but his power was broken by Harold in two invasions (1062–63). His defeat plunged Wales into confusion and paved the way for the conquest of Wales by the Normans. His name also appears as Griffith ap Llewelyn.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Gruffydd ap Llywelyn." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Feb. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Gruffydd ap Llywelyn." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gruffydd-ap-llywelyn

"Gruffydd ap Llywelyn." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved February 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gruffydd-ap-llywelyn

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.