Gruffydd ap Llywelyn
Ralph Alan Griffiths
"Gruffydd ap Llywelyn." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 25, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gruffydd-ap-llywelyn
"Gruffydd ap Llywelyn." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved September 25, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gruffydd-ap-llywelyn
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Gruffydd ap Llywelyn
Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (grĬf´Ĭŧħ äp hləwĕl´Ĭn, lōōĕl´Ĭn), d. 1063, ruler of Wales (1039–63). A series of campaigns against other Welsh princes made him the ruler of virtually all Wales. Allied with the outlawed Ælfgar of Mercia, he launched a series of raids into W England, but his power was broken by Harold in two invasions (1062–63). His defeat plunged Wales into confusion and paved the way for the conquest of Wales by the Normans. His name also appears as Griffith ap Llewelyn.
"Gruffydd ap Llywelyn." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 25, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gruffydd-ap-llywelyn
"Gruffydd ap Llywelyn." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved September 25, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gruffydd-ap-llywelyn