GRUENBERG, KARL (1861–1940), economic and social historian. Gruenberg, who was born in Focsani, Romania, studied and practiced law from 1885. In 1900 he became an associate professor of economics and in 1909 full professor at the University of Vienna. He was director of the Institute of Social Research at the University of Frankfurt from 1924 until 1927 when he resigned because of ill health. Gruenberg wrote extensively on the agrarian history of the Austrian monarchy and the history of Socialism. Beginning in 1910 he published the Archiv fuer die Geschichte des Sozialismus und der Arbeiterbewegung, or Episoden – Sechs Jahrzehnte Kampf um den Sozialismus. Gruenberg was murdered by a Nazi in Frankfurt on the Main.
Oesterreichisches biographisches Lexikon, 2 (1959), 88. add. bibliography: G. Nenning, Carl Gruenberg und die Anfaenge des Austromarxismus (1965).