Skip to main content
Select Source:

Caroline of Brunswick

Caroline of Brunswick (1768–1821), queen of George IV. Caroline's marriage to her cousin George, prince of Wales, in March 1795 was a spectacular disaster. According to her own testimony, intimacy was confined to the first night, and certainly the couple separated after the birth of their daughter Princess Charlotte in January 1796. Thereafter, Caroline spent much time on the continent with a strange entourage, which led to much gossip. A ‘delicate investigation’ into her conduct in 1806 cleared her of adultery but declared that she had been indiscreet. In 1815 Lady Bessborough, at a ball, found her ‘a short, very fat, elderly woman, with an extremely red face’, wearing a white frock cut ‘disgustingly low’. When George became king in 1820, Caroline rejected an offer of £50,000 p.a. to stay abroad and returned to England to claim her place as queen. Her cause was taken up by George's not inconsiderable number of enemies and she won a good deal of popular support. A government-sponsored bill to annul the marriage had to be withdrawn. Denman, one of her counsel, in a theatrical flourish, begged the Lords to remember that Christ himself had forgiven the woman taken in adultery, laying himself open to a celebrated riposte:Most gracious Queen, we thee implore
To go away and sin no more;
Or, if the effort be too great,
To go away at any rate.
When Caroline appeared at Westminster abbey in July 1821 at George's coronation, demanding to be let in, she overplayed her hand. She died a fortnight afterwards.

Sue Minna Cannon

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Caroline of Brunswick." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 May. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Caroline of Brunswick." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 24, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/caroline-brunswick

"Caroline of Brunswick." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved May 24, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/caroline-brunswick

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Caroline of Brunswick

Caroline of Brunswick, 1768–1821, consort of George IV of England. The daughter of Charles William Ferdinand, duke of Brunswick, she married George (then prince of Wales) in 1795. She bore him one daughter, but the couple separated in 1796 and Caroline, deprived of her child, lived in retirement. An accusation that she had borne an illegitimate child occasioned a commission of inquiry (1806), which found her innocent but imprudent. Caroline went abroad in 1814, but when George became king in 1820 she returned to claim her rights as queen. The government immediately instituted proceedings against her in the House of Lords for divorce on the grounds of adultery. Caroline was probably guilty of the charge, but her persecution by a profligate husband aroused popular sympathy for her and the bill was dropped.

See biographies by J. Richardson (1960), E. F. L. Russell (1967), and F. Fraser (1996); R. Fulford, The Trial of Queen Caroline (1967).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Caroline of Brunswick." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 May. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Caroline of Brunswick." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 24, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/caroline-brunswick

"Caroline of Brunswick." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved May 24, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/caroline-brunswick

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.