Skip to main content
Select Source:

F

F, f [Called ‘eff’]. The 6th LETTER of the Roman ALPHABET as used for English. It originated in the Phoenician symbol waw, a vertical line forking at the top like Y, which was adapted by the Greeks into two letters: ϝ (digamma: ‘double gamma’), which represented the sound /w/, and Υ(upsilon), which represented /u/. Waw was also the ancestor of U, V, W. Digamma was lost in classical Greek, which used Φ (phi) first for aspirated /p/, later for /f/. The Etruscans, then the Romans, gave F the value it has today in English: the voiceless labio-dental fricative, which has V as its voiced equivalent. In Old English, however, f was used for both voiceless and voiced consonants. Formerly, of was not distinguished in spelling from off: the f was voiced when the syllable containing it was unstressed, and voiceless when stressed, until the two came to be distinguished (c.16c) in SPELLING and meaning as off/of, the latter retaining the sound /v/. In ScoE, of and off are often homophones, both pronounced with /f/.

F/V alternation

There is sometimes an alternation between f and v in grammatically or etymologically related words. For example, the following nouns have singular -f(e), plural -ves: calf, elf, half, knife, leaf, life, loaf, self, sheaf, shelf, thief, wife, wolf. In some cases, the plural may be either -fs or -ves: dwarfs/dwarves, hoofs/hooves. So engrained is the tendency to f/v alternation that handkerchiefs, roofs are often pronounced with /v/. Verbs from such nouns have f or v, but do not vary when inflected: to knife/knifed, to halve/halved. Other examples of v/f alternation include believe/belief, leave/left, strive/strife, five/fifth, twelve/twelfth. The f/v distinction in fox/vixen arises from the different dialects from which the words have been taken.

Double F

(1) Except in if, of and some loanwords, f is doubled in syllable-final position immediately after a single vowel letter that is pronounced short: waffle, piffle, bailiff, cliff, scoff, stuff. Single f occurs otherwise: deaf, elf, beef, belief, dwarf, golf, loaf. (2) There is doubling between vowels, especially to show the assimilation of the Latin prefixes ad-, ob-, sub-, as in affair, offer, suffer. An anomaly is single f in afraid, despite ff in the related affray.

F, GH, and PH.

(1) In some common words, the digraph gh represents /f/: cough, enough, laugh, rough, tough. AmE does not make the BrE distinction between draught/draft, having draft for both. In BrE, a draftsman draws up the wording of documents and a draughtsman prepares technical drawings. See G. (2) The digraph ph represents /f/, generally in words of Greek origin: photograph, philosophy. See P. F has, however, varied historically with ph in some words: for example, with the revival of Greek learning in the 16c, fantasy began to be written phantasy, but in the 20c has reverted to f. Occasionally, words not derived from Greek have acquired ph in place of f: nephew was once written with both f and v. AmE sulfur retains the original Latin form, whereas BrE has sulphur; the AmE form is increasingly used internationally, as for example by pure and applied chemists. In commerce, a standard ph may be replaced by f in a trade name or for special effect, or both, as with fotopost and freefone. See WRITING.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"F." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Apr. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"F." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/f

"F." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Retrieved April 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/f

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

F

F1 / ef/ (also f) • n. (pl. Fs or F's ) 1. the sixth letter of the alphabet. ∎  denoting the next after E in a set of items, categories, etc. ∎  the sixth highest or lowest class of academic marks (also used to represent “Fail”). 2. (usu. F) Mus. the fourth note of the diatonic scale of C major. ∎  a key based on a scale with F as its keynote. F2 • abbr. ∎  Fahrenheit: 60°F. ∎  failure. ∎  false. ∎  farad(s). ∎  Chem. faraday(s). ∎  February. ∎  Fellow. ∎  female. ∎  fighter (in designations of U.S. aircraft types): the F117 Stealth fighter. ∎  forint. ∎  Franc(s). ∎  France. ∎  French. • symb. ∎  the chemical element fluorine. ∎ Physics force: F = ma.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"F." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Apr. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"F." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/f-4

"F." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved April 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/f-4

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

f

f • abbr. ∎  farad. ∎  farthing. ∎  father. ∎  fathom. ∎  feet. ∎  Gram. feminine. ∎  female. ∎  [in comb.] (in units of measurement) femto- (10−15). ∎  filly. ∎  fine. ∎  (in textual references) folio. ∎  following. ∎  foot. ∎  form. ∎  Mus. forte. ∎  (in racing results) furlong(s). ∎  franc. ∎  from. ∎ Chem. denoting electrons and orbitals possessing three units of angular momentum: f-orbitals. • symb. ∎  focal length: apertures of f/5.6 to f/11. See also f-number. ∎  Math. a function of a specified variable: the value of f(x). ∎ Electr. frequency.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"f." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Apr. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"f." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/f-5

"f." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved April 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/f-5

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

F

F Sixth letter of the Roman-based w European alphabet, representing a labio-dental fricative consonant. It is derived from the hook-shaped Semitic letter waw. In earlier stages of English, f between vowels sounded as v, and it is pronounced like a v in of. In some English words ending in f (such as hoof) the f changes to a v in the plural (hooves). In Welsh a single f is regularly pronounced as v, while the doubled consonant is pronounced f.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"F." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Apr. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"F." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/f

"F." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved April 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/f

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

F

F, sixth letter of the alphabet. The Greek letter corresponding to it, digamma, which probably represented a sound like w, disappeared before the classical period. In Western alphabets f has usually represented the voiceless labiodental fricative, as in the English fast. In musical notation F stands for a note in the scale. In chemistry F is the symbol of the element fluorine.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"F." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Apr. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"F." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/f

"F." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved April 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/f

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

f

f. Abbreviation of forte (It., ‘loud’, ‘strong’), hence degrees of increasing loudness, ff (fortissimo), fff (triple forte), and sometimes more.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"f." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Apr. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"f." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/f-0

"f." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Retrieved April 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/f-0

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

F

F. Note of the scale, 4th degree of natural scale of C. Thus F♭, F♭♭, F♮, F♯, F♯♯. Keys of F major and F minor, F♯ major, F♯ minor. ‘In F’ is also an indication of transposing instr. on which written note C sounds as F (e.g. hn., F tpt.). The F clef is the bass clef.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"F." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Apr. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"F." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/f

"F." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Retrieved April 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/f

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

F

F the sixth letter of the modern English alphabet and of the ancient Roman one, corresponding to Greek digamma (ϝ), Semitic waw.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"F." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Apr. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"F." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/f

"F." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Retrieved April 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/f

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

F

F A notation, introduced by the geneticist Sewall Wright, for the inbreeding coefficient. See also COEFFICIENT OF INBREEDING.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"F." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Apr. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"F." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/f-0

"F." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Retrieved April 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/f-0

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

F

F Notation, introduced by the geneticist Sewall Wright, for the inbreeding coefficient. See also COEFFICIENT OF INBREEDING

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"F." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Apr. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"F." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/f

"F." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Retrieved April 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/f

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

F

F. Prefix given to numbers in the catalogue of Vivaldi's works by Antonio Fanna. Superseded by that of Ryom.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"F." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Apr. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"F." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/f-1

"F." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Retrieved April 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/f-1

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

F

F
1. symbol for Fahrenheit.

2. symbol for farad.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"F." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Apr. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"F." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/caregiving/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/f

"F." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Retrieved April 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/caregiving/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/f

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

f

f Numismatics face value
• Music fah (in tonic sol-fa)
• symbol for femto- (prefix indicating 10-15, as in fm, femtometre)
• (or f/, f:) Photog. f-number (ratio of the focal length of a lens to its aperture, as in f8)
• (ital.) Physics, symbol for focal length
• foreign
• (ital.) Music forte (Italian; loudly)
• (ital.) Physics, symbol for frequency
• (ital.) Physical chem., symbol for fugacity
• (ital.) Maths., symbol for function (as in f(x))
• (ital.) Biochem., symbol for furanose
• Chem., Physics, indicating electron state l=3 (where l is orbital angular momentum quantum number)
• indicating the fifth vertical row of squares from the left on a chessboard

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"f." The Oxford Dictionary of Abbreviations. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Apr. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"f." The Oxford Dictionary of Abbreviations. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/f-1

"f." The Oxford Dictionary of Abbreviations. . Retrieved April 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/f-1

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.