-ese

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-ESE. A suffix added to nouns and adjectives. Its primary use is the identification of nationalities, languages, and the like, as in Chinese, Congolese, Japanese, Javanese, Viennese, Vietnamese, but a significant secondary use is the labelling of styles or registers of English. The primary use is neutral, but the secondary use is often pejorative, associated with individuals whose STYLE is distinctive and idiosyncratic (Carlylese, Johnsonese), groups whose stylistic tendencies are seen as undesirable (academese, BUREAUCRATESE), language varieties considered deficient or peculiar (BROOKLYNESE, Pentagonese), and the media and technology (cablese, COMPUTERESE). Nonce and stunt creations are common, such as UNese, a diplomatic style said to be used in the United Nations Organization. See COMMERCIALESE, HEADLINE, JOURNALESE, LEGALESE, OFFICIALESE, SOCIOLOGESE. Compare -ISM, LINGO, -SPEAK.

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-ese suffix repr. OF. -eis (mod. -ois, -ais) — L. -ēnsis, -ēns-, which meant ‘belonging to, originating in (a place)’, as hortēnsis, f. hortus garden, prātēnsis, f. prātum meadow, and in many adjs. of local names, as Athēniēnsis Athenian, f. Athēnæ Athens. As a living suffix it forms derivs. of names of countries, as Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese (F. chinois, japonais, portugais) and from some names of foreign towns, as Cantonese, Viennese. Such adjs. are used sb. as names of languages or as designations of peoples.