conjunction (language)

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conjunctionashen, fashion, passion, ration •abstraction, action, attraction, benefaction, compaction, contraction, counteraction, diffraction, enaction, exaction, extraction, faction, fraction, interaction, liquefaction, malefaction, petrifaction, proaction, protraction, putrefaction, redaction, retroaction, satisfaction, stupefaction, subtraction, traction, transaction, tumefaction, vitrifaction •expansion, mansion, scansion, stanchion •sanction •caption, contraption •harshen, Martian •cession, discretion, freshen, session •abjection, affection, circumspection, collection, complexion, confection, connection, convection, correction, defection, deflection, dejection, detection, direction, ejection, election, erection, genuflection, imperfection, infection, inflection, injection, inspection, insurrection, interconnection, interjection, intersection, introspection, lection, misdirection, objection, perfection, predilection, projection, protection, refection, reflection, rejection, resurrection, retrospection, section, selection, subjection, transection, vivisection •exemption, pre-emption, redemption •abstention, apprehension, ascension, attention, circumvention, comprehension, condescension, contention, contravention, convention, declension, detention, dimension, dissension, extension, gentian, hypertension, hypotension, intention, intervention, invention, mention, misapprehension, obtention, pension, prehension, prevention, recension, retention, subvention, supervention, suspension, tension •conception, contraception, deception, exception, inception, interception, misconception, perception, reception •Übermenschen • subsection •ablation, aeration, agnation, Alsatian, Amerasian, Asian, aviation, cetacean, citation, conation, creation, Croatian, crustacean, curation, Dalmatian, delation, dilation, donation, duration, elation, fixation, Galatian, gyration, Haitian, halation, Horatian, ideation, illation, lavation, legation, libation, location, lunation, mutation, natation, nation, negation, notation, nutation, oblation, oration, ovation, potation, relation, rogation, rotation, Sarmatian, sedation, Serbo-Croatian, station, taxation, Thracian, vacation, vexation, vocation, zonation •accretion, Capetian, completion, concretion, deletion, depletion, Diocletian, excretion, Grecian, Helvetian, repletion, Rhodesian, secretion, suppletion, Tahitian, venetian •academician, addition, aesthetician (US esthetician), ambition, audition, beautician, clinician, coition, cosmetician, diagnostician, dialectician, dietitian, Domitian, edition, electrician, emission, fission, fruition, Hermitian, ignition, linguistician, logician, magician, mathematician, Mauritian, mechanician, metaphysician, mission, monition, mortician, munition, musician, obstetrician, omission, optician, paediatrician (US pediatrician), patrician, petition, Phoenician, physician, politician, position, rhetorician, sedition, statistician, suspicion, tactician, technician, theoretician, Titian, tuition, volition •addiction, affliction, benediction, constriction, conviction, crucifixion, depiction, dereliction, diction, eviction, fiction, friction, infliction, interdiction, jurisdiction, malediction, restriction, transfixion, valediction •distinction, extinction, intinction •ascription, circumscription, conscription, decryption, description, Egyptian, encryption, inscription, misdescription, prescription, subscription, superscription, transcription •proscription •concoction, decoction •adoption, option •abortion, apportion, caution, contortion, distortion, extortion, portion, proportion, retortion, torsion •auction •absorption, sorption •commotion, devotion, emotion, groschen, Laotian, locomotion, lotion, motion, notion, Nova Scotian, ocean, potion, promotion •ablution, absolution, allocution, attribution, circumlocution, circumvolution, Confucian, constitution, contribution, convolution, counter-revolution, destitution, dilution, diminution, distribution, electrocution, elocution, evolution, execution, institution, interlocution, irresolution, Lilliputian, locution, perlocution, persecution, pollution, prosecution, prostitution, restitution, retribution, Rosicrucian, solution, substitution, volution •cushion • resumption • München •pincushion •Belorussian, Prussian, Russian •abduction, conduction, construction, deduction, destruction, eduction, effluxion, induction, instruction, introduction, misconstruction, obstruction, production, reduction, ruction, seduction, suction, underproduction •avulsion, compulsion, convulsion, emulsion, expulsion, impulsion, propulsion, repulsion, revulsion •assumption, consumption, gumption, presumption •luncheon, scuncheon, truncheon •compunction, conjunction, dysfunction, expunction, function, junction, malfunction, multifunction, unction •abruption, corruption, disruption, eruption, interruption •T-junction • liposuction •animadversion, aspersion, assertion, aversion, Cistercian, coercion, conversion, desertion, disconcertion, dispersion, diversion, emersion, excursion, exertion, extroversion, immersion, incursion, insertion, interspersion, introversion, Persian, perversion, submersion, subversion, tertian, version •excerption

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CONJUNCTION. A PART OF SPEECH or word class used to connect words or constructions. The two classes of conjunctions are coordinating conjunction or coordinator and subordinating conjunction or subordinator: (1) Coordinating conjunctions (chiefly and, but, or) connect units of equal status and function: the two equal clauses They called me Ishmael, I didn't mind in They called me Ishmael, but I didn't mind; the three equal adjectives long, narrow, crooked in The street was long, narrow, and crooked. (2) Subordinating conjunctions such as because, if, although connect a subordinate clause to its superordinate clause: We did it because he told us to; Take it if you wish; Although it was late, they kept on working.

Two or more subordinate clauses can be connected with a coordinator: Take it if you wish and if no one else wants it. The repeated subordinator may be omitted, if there is no danger of misinterpretation: I know that she wants it and he doesn't. The process of linking units by means of coordinators is known as conjunction, conjoining, and traditionally and most commonly coordination. The linked units that result are said to be coordinated or coordinate: for example, a coordinate clause. More recently, the units have been called conjoins or in generative grammar conjuncts. The process of linking units by means of subordinators is usually termed subordination or embedding. Both coordinators and subordinators may be reinforced by being combined with correlatives, a term used both for the reinforcing item and for that item and the conjunction it accompanies. The principal correlative coordinators are bothand (Both Michael and Vivien were at my birthday party), eitheror (You can discuss it either with me or with the manager), neithernor (Neither Jack nor Ava had the time to help me). Correlative subordinators include asas (Derek is as fond of the grandchildren as Natalie is), whetheror (I'm not sure whether Ian or Carmel told me), the … the (The older I get, the less I worry), and ifthen (If you tell Estelle, then she will tell Philip). Although subordinators may consist of one word, as above, there are many complex subordinators of two or more words, such as in order that, such that, as far as (as in as far as I know), and as if.

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con·junc·tion / kənˈjəngkshən/ • n. 1. the act of joining or the condition of being joined: the conjunction of floating islands. ∎  an instance of two or more events or things occurring at the same point in time or space: a conjunction of favorable circumstances. ∎  Astron. & Astrol. an alignment of two planets or other celestial objects so that they appear to be in the same, or nearly the same, place in the sky. 2. Gram. a word used to connect clauses or sentences or to coordinate words in the same clause (e.g., and, but, if). PHRASES: in conjunction together: herbal medicine was used in conjunction with acupuncture and massage.DERIVATIVES: con·junc·tion·al / -shənl/ adj.

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program design language (PDL) A language, used for expressing program designs, that is similar to a conventional high-level programming language but emphasizes structure and intention rather than the ability to execute programs expressed in the language. PDLs are often employed in conjunction with structured programming. When not executable they are termed pseudolanguages.

Typically the formal syntax of a PDL would cover data definition and overall program structure. Facilities in the latter area would include the basic control-flow constructs – sequential, conditional, and iterative – plus those for the definition and invocation of subroutines. These facilities would be used to define the overall framework of the program, but individual actions within the framework would be expressed using pseudolanguage – natural English mixed with a more formal semantically rich language. Correspondingly, the PDL facilities for data definition may be expected to be richer than those of a typical programming language, encompassing a broader range of basic types and a more extensive set of data-structuring facilities. A wide variety of PDLs have been defined; normal practice is to select one that is well-matched to the target programming language.

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conjunction A logical expression of the form a1a2 ∧ … ∧ an

where ∧ is the AND operation. A particular conjunction of interest is the conjunctive normal form (CNF) of a Boolean expression involving n variables, x1, x2,…, xn. Each ai is of the form (y1y2 ∨ … ∨ yn)

where ∨ is the OR operation and yi is equal to xi or the complement of xi. Reducing expressions to conjunctive normal form provides a ready method of determining the equivalence of two Boolean expressions. See also propositional calculus. Compare disjunction.

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a combination of events or circumstances.

Examples: conjunction of alleys, courts, and passages, 1722; of circumstances, 1866; of events, 1862; of grammariansLipton, 1970; of planets, 1375; of all good things. 1644.