Reyes, Rafael (1849–1921)
Reyes, Rafael (1849–1921)
Rafael Reyes (b. 5 December 1849; d. 18 February 1921), president of Colombia (1904–1909). A native of Boyacá, Reyes made a fortune in the quinine boom of the 1870s, and later explored the Putumayo region. His prominence within the Conservative Party began with the civil war of 1885, and peaked in 1895 when he led government forces at Enciso, Santander. Reyes opposed the governing Nationalist wing of the Conservatives in the 1890s, and sat out the War of the Thousand Days (1899–1902) abroad. In 1904 Reyes won the presidency in a tight election plagued by fraud. His administration, known as the quinquenio, reformed public administration and fostered economic recovery through tariff protection and amortization of paper money; his generous policy toward the defeated Liberals won him widespread support from that party. But his authoritarian style, particularly his dissolution of Congress in 1905, eventually alienated political elites of both parties. In June 1909, following street demonstrations in Bogotá, Reyes secretly boarded a ship for Europe, to the surprise of guests expecting him at a Santa Marta dinner.
Eduardo Lemaitre Román, Rafael Reyes (1967).
Charles W. Bergquist, Coffee and Conflict in Colombia, 1886–1910 (1978), pp. 220-246.
Ignacio Arizmendi Posada, Presidentes de Colombia 1810–1990 (1989), pp. 195-198.
Motta Vargas, Ricardo, and Jaime Castro. Ordenamiento territorial en el quinquenio de Rafael Reyes. Bogotá: Ediciones Doctrina y Ley Ltda., 2005.
Olano Correa, Carmenza. Rafael Reyes y la apertura. Boyacá: Thalassa Editores, 1991.
Santisteban Gómez, Flaminio. Ideas políticas y realizaciones de Rafael Reyes. Bogotá: Cámara de Representantes, Congreso Nacional de Colombia, 1996.
Richard J. Stoller
"Reyes, Rafael (1849–1921)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 19, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/reyes-rafael-1849-1921
"Reyes, Rafael (1849–1921)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved September 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/reyes-rafael-1849-1921
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.