Piñol y Aycinena, Bernardo (1806–1881)

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Piñol y Aycinena, Bernardo (1806–1881)

Bernardo Piñol y Aycinena (b. 2 November 1806; d. 24 June 1881), archbishop of Guatemala (1867–1881). Born in Guatemala, Piñol entered the Franciscan order and became a priest in 1830. After the suppression of religious associations in the 1830s, he joined the secular clergy. He obtained a doctorate in philosophy from the University of San Carlos, where he held a chair and served as rector during the Rafael Carrera presidency. In 1854 he accepted the bishopric of Nicaragua and served in that post until his appointment as archbishop of Guatemala in 1867. He became embroiled in the church and state conflict after the Liberals assumed power in 1871. His defense of the church against anticlerical writings, his opposition to the government's expulsion of the Jesuits, and his refusal to honor the state's request to issue a pastoral letter calling for an end to Conservative rebellions led to his banishment in 1871 to Havana, Cuba. He remained archbishop of Guatemala until his death, while a series of apostolic administrators governed the archdiocese.

See alsoFranciscans; Guatemala.


Mary P. Holleran, Church and State in Guatemala (1949), esp. pp. 145-166 and 202.

Hubert J. Miller, La iglesia católica y el estado en Guatemala, 1871–1885 (1976), esp. pp. 72-123 and 317-326.

Agustín Estrada Monroy, Datos para la historia de la Iglesia en Guatemala, vol. 3 (1979), esp. pp. 29-85.

Additional Bibliography

Sullivan-González, Douglass. Piety, Power, and Politics: Religion and Nation Formation in Guatemala, 1821–1871. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1998.

Woodward, Ralph Lee. Rafael Carrera y la creación de la República de Guatemala, 1821–1871. La Antigua, Guatemala: Centro de Investigaciones Regionales de Mesoamérica, 2002.

                                   Hubert J. Miller