Skip to main content



The Muna (Mina, Moenanezen, To Muna), numbering about 200,000 in 1977, live on Muna Island, adjacent to Buton, south of the southeastern peninsula of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Muna is classified in the West Indonesian Group of the Austronesian Language Family. Plaited-grass houses, raised on piles, formerly were scattered among the swiddens. The only large settlement is the capital, Kota Muna. Maize is the staple crop, supplemented by sweet potato, sugarcane, and vegetables. Muna was ruled by the Butung sultanate from the coming of Islam at the end of the sixteenth century until the early twentieth century.

See also Butonese


LeBar, Frank M. (1972). "Muna." In Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia, edited by Frank M. LeBar. Vol. 1, Indonesia, Andaman Islands, and Madagascar, 144-145. New Haven: HRAF Press.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Muna." Encyclopedia of World Cultures. . 21 Mar. 2018 <>.

"Muna." Encyclopedia of World Cultures. . (March 21, 2018).

"Muna." Encyclopedia of World Cultures. . Retrieved March 21, 2018 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.