Skip to main content

Mariño, Santiago (1788–1854)

Mariño, Santiago (1788–1854)

Santiago Mariño (b. 25 July 1788; d. 4 September 1854), Venezuelan Independence leader. From 1811 to 1821 the aristocratic General Mariño led patriot forces against Spanish rule, especially in his native eastern Venezuela, where he was the most powerful caudillo. Although he several times sought to assert his independence from Simón Bolívar, Mariño served under him for many years and was Bolívar's chief of staff at the battle of Carabobo (1821), which assured Venezuela's independence from Spain. Later he was elected vice president of the ill-fated Gran Colombia confederation. After he lost the 1834 election for president of Venezuela, he rebelled unsuccessfully against the government of José María Vargas (1835–1836). Defeated for the presidency again in 1850, Mariño closed his career as a caudillo by participating in the Revolution of May (1853) that sought to overthrow José Gregorio Monagas.

See alsoGren Colombia; Venezuela since 1830.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Julio Cárdenas Ramírez and Carlos Saenz De La Calzada, eds., Diccionario biográfico de Venezuela (1953).

Guillermo Morón, A History of Venezuela (1964).

Caracciolo Parra Pérez, Mariño y la independencia de Venezuela, 5 vols. (Madrid, 1954–1957).

Jesús Manuel Subero, En defensa del General Santiago Mariño (1975).

Additional Bibliography

Méndez, Noris, and Pedro Pablo Olivares. "Santiago Mariño y la revolución de las reformas." Revista Iberoame-ricana 82:327 (July-September 1999): 348-360.

Zahler, Reuben. "Honor, Corruption, and Legitimacy: Liberal Projects in the Early Venezuelan Republic, 1821–50." Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 2005.

                              Winfield J. Burggraaff

                                        InÉs Quintero

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Mariño, Santiago (1788–1854)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Mariño, Santiago (1788–1854)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 21, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marino-santiago-1788-1854

"Mariño, Santiago (1788–1854)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved November 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marino-santiago-1788-1854

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.