Skip to main content

Marajó Island

Marajó Island

Marajó Island, an island located at the mouth of the Amazon River on the Atlantic coast of Brazil. Approximately 45,000 square miles in area, Marajó is the world's largest river island. The climate of the island is tropical savanna, and rain falls seasonally from January to July (80-100 inches per year). During the rainy season most (70 percent) of the island floods. Evidence of human habitation on Marajó dates back to the early Holocene period (3,000 to 8,000 b.p.). The island was home to the Pre-Colombian Marajoara culture, which, according to evidence, developed elsewhere and then moved to the island. At the time of European arrival, the population of Marajó may have stood at 36,000.

The people on Marajó Island resisted European encroachment for over 150 years, until Padre Vieira persuaded the Nheengaiba and other tribes to accept Portuguese rule in 1659. After the Portuguese took control, the island was entrusted to the Jesuits, who began raising cattle with Indian cowboys to manage the herds. Around 1900, Indian water buffalo were introduced into the Marajó ecology. According to local tradition water buffalo that were originally intended for British Guiana arrived via a shipwreck. Today, cattle and water buffalo are raised commercially for meat and transportation needs.

See alsoAmazon Basin, Archaeology; Amazon Region; Marajoara.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Betty J. Meggers, Amazonia: Man and Culture in a Counterfeit Paradise (1971).

John Hemming, Red Gold: The Conquest of the Brazilian Indians, 1500–1760 (1978).

Anna C. Roosevelt, Moundbuilders of the Amazon: Geophysical Archeology on Marajó Island, Brazil (1991).

Additional Bibliography

De Assis, Célia, Bauer, Renate, and Tomaz, Kika. Ilha de Marajó: Paisajem, cultura e natureza. São Paulo, SP.: Banco Sudameris Brasil, 1996.

Meggers, Betty Jane. The Archeological Sequence on Marajo Island, Brazil: With Special Reference to the Marajoara Culture. New York: Columbia University, 2002.

                                    Michael J. Broyles

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Marajó Island." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Marajó Island." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 16, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marajo-island

"Marajó Island." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved November 16, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marajo-island

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.