Maracatu, an Afro-Brazilian dance procession performed during Carnival in Recife, Pernambuco. The maracatu originated in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when plantation owners allowed slaves to elect kings and queens and parade during holidays—singing, dancing, and drumming—while dressed in the costumes of European royal courts. These groups, which were then known as Congadas and were linked to black religious brotherhoods, mixed Catholicism with African religious practices. After the abolition of slavery (1888) this tradition was incorporated into the Carnival celebrations of Recife and given the name maracatu. These groups now parade during carnival dressed in elaborate Louis XV costumes of various stock characters: king, queen, princes, princesses, ambassadors, Roman soldiers, baianas (Bahian women), and slaves. A central figure is the dama do paço (court lady), whocarries a small doll representing an ancestor of the group.
Accompanying the royal court is a large percussion orchestra of double-headed drums, metal shakers, and large iron bells. The rhythms are elaborate, interlocking, and highly syncopated, with large bombos (bass drums) taking the lead role. Toadas (songs) are sung by a lead singer and chorus in a call-and-response form that typically combines Portuguese and Yoruba words. In the 1940s, the maracatu rural, a new type of group combining Afro-Brazilian and mestizo traditional patterns developed in the sugarcane area around Recife.
See alsoMusic: Popular Music and Dance .
César Guerra-Peixe, Maracatus do Recife, 2d ed. (1980).
Katarina Real, O folclore no carnaval do Recife, 2d ed. (1990), esp. pp. 55-82.
Galinsky, Philip. "Maracatu Atomico": Tradition, Modernity, and Postmodernity in the Mangue Movement and the "New Music Scene" of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. London: Routledge, 2002.
Real, Katarina. Eudes, o rei do Maracatu. Recife: Fundacão Joaquim Nabuco, 2001.
Larry N. Crook
"Maracatu." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 22, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/maracatu
"Maracatu." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved January 22, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/maracatu
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.