Maranhão, Estado do
Maranhão, Estado do
Estado do Maranhão, one of several administrative centers in colonial Brazil. Because prevailing winds made northern Brazil more accessible by sea from Lisbon than from Salvador, the state of Maranhão was formed as a separate government in 1621. It initially included the captaincies of Ceará (later made dependent upon Pernambuco), Maranhão, and Grão Pará, which included the Amazon Valley. During the seventeenth century the capital moved between the towns of São Luís do Maranhão and Belém do Pará, but when cacao, harvested from the Amazonian rainforest, became the leading export in the eighteenth century, Belém, the leading port, also became the permanent capital. Until their removal in 1759–1760, the Jesuits were the dominant missionaries, but they were joined by Carmelites, Franciscans, and Mercedarians. The expulsion of the Jesuits coincided with the legal end of Indian slavery in Maranhão and the introduction of substantial numbers of African slaves. The arrival of the blacks led to the development of plantation-produced staple exports, mainly cotton and rice. As part of the administrative reorganization of Brazil during the 1760s and 1770s, the state was abolished as a separate entity in 1774.
Cézar Augusto Marques, Diccionário histórico-geográphico do Maranhão (Maranhão, 1870).
Rodolfo Garcia, Ensaio sôbre a história política e administrativa do Brasil (1500–1810) (Rio de Janeiro, 1956), chap. 11.
Almeida, Rita Heloísa de. O diretório dos índios: Um projeto de "civilização" no Brasil do século XVIII. Brasília: Editora UnB, 1997.
Costa, Wagner Cabral da. História do Maranhão: Novos estudos. São Luís: EDUFMA, 2004.
Santos Neto, Manoel dos. O negro no Maranhão. São Luís: Clara Editora: Edições Guarnicê, 2004.
"Maranhão, Estado do." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 18, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/maranhao-estado-do
"Maranhão, Estado do." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved January 18, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/maranhao-estado-do
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.