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The Incas revered the Pacific Ocean as the goddess Mamacocha, which translates from the Quechua as "Lady Sea" or "Mother Sea." Streams and springs, considered to be daughters of the sea, were venerated and given offerings of shells.

See alsoIncas, The .


John H. Rowe, "Inca Culture at the Time of the Spanish Conquest," in Handbook of South American Indians, vol. 2 (1946), pp. 183-330. See also Burr Cartwright Brundage, The Empire of the Inca (1963).

Additional Bibliography

Cobo, Bernabé, Historia del nuevo mundo (1653). Sevilla: Impresa de E. Rasco, 1890–1895.

Silverblatt, Irene. Moon, Sun, and Witches: Gender Ideologies and Class in Inca and Colonial Peru. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987.

                                      Gordon F. Mcewan