Mamadou, Tandja 1938–
Tandja Mamadou 1938–
President of Niger
One of the first “democratically-elected presidents of Niger, Tandja Mamadou, is the hope of the future to many,” said the Camel Express, an English newsletter of the Friends of Niger. Though only history will attest to whether or not Mamadou will fulfill the hope that he has been identified with, he has already dedicated much of his life and energy to the government of Niger, creating a legacy of commitment that many countries, developed and developing, would envy. Like many post-colonial African nations, Niger has known little peace since securing its independence from France in 1960. Ranked as one of the poorest countries on Earth and possessing one of the largest foreign debts, the country has suffered greatly and continues to battle with poverty, a dilapidated infrastructure, ongoing warfare between ethnic groups, and bloody political coups.
Mamadou was born in Maine-Soroa, in the Lake Chad region of southeast Niger in 1938. He was educated at a military school and pursued a career in the Nigerian Armed Forces, where he eventually rose to the rank of Colonel. His high rank in the military afforded him close contact with the government and in 1974 Mamadou played a key role in a military coup that ousted then President Hamani Diori. Another military leader, Lieutenant Colonel Seyni Kountché, assumed the presidency and a military government was established that would last the next 15 years. During this time Mamadou held many high-level governmental posts, including that of Prefect of the Region of Tahoua (similar to governor of a state) from 1981 to 1988. Following Kountché’s death in 1987, some sources close to the presidency indicated that Kountché wanted Mamadou to succeed him as president. However, another officer, General Ali Seybou, became the next military president of Niger.
Mamadou continued to hold posts in the government under Seybou as well, including the role of Ambassador to Nigeria, one of Niger’s most important neighbors. Niger relies heavily on imports of basic commodities from Nigeria including electricity. Mamadou held this post from 1988 to 1990, at which time he was appointed Minister of the Interior. He remained in this role until 1991 when Seybou dismantled the military government and instituted a civilian democracy. Soon after, Mamadou retired from the military, though not from political life.
In 1993 Mamadou ran for president of Niger in the country’s first democratic elections in over two decades. Although Mamadou captured the most votes, these did not translate into a clear majority, and he lost the election in a re-run to his closest opponent, Mahamane Ousmane, amidst rumors that he was not a native born citizen of Niger. Following this loss, Mamadou assumed the leadership of his political party, the National Movement for the Development of Society (MNSD).
Ousmane’s presidency was marked with periods of ethnic violence as well as continued economic instability and poverty. In 1996 the country was once again engulfed in a military coup, this time led by Colonel Ibrahim Bare Mainassara, who re-established military rule. Recognizing, however, that a military leadership
Born Tandja Mamadou in 1938 in Maine-Soroa, near the Lake Chad region of Niger. Education: Completed training at a military school.
Career: Soldier and politician. Participated in the military junta that ousted President Diori, 1974; Prefect of the Region of Tahoua, 1981-88; Ambassador of Niger, 1988-90; Minister of the Interior, 1990-91; retired from military; made two unsuccessful presidential bids; active in political demonstrations against government and was arrested, 1997; elected to a five-year term as president of Niger, 1999.
would potentially threaten foreign aid, Mainassara decided to legitimize the new government with an election. Mamadou, as well as recently-ousted President Ousmane, ran against Mainassara for the post, but before the election could take place, Mainassara outlawed political rallies, replacing the electoral congress with his own cronies and becoming Niger’s elected president.
During Mainassara’s rule, Mamadou and other political leaders, including his former rival, Ousmane, staged a number of boycotts against the government, brazenly acting in defiance of the President. Together they formed the Front for the Restoration and Defense of the Democracy, and in 1997, in an extravagant political move, Mamadou and two other opposition leaders turned themselves into Mainassara’s government to be willingly arrested as political dissidents.
Dissatisfaction with Mainassara’s government grew as Niger’s dire economic situation worsened. Poverty continued to rise and many civil servants, including soldiers, were not being paid. Along with the political dissidence fueled by Mamadou and others, the situation ignited and on April 9, 1996, Mainassara’s own presidential guard assassinated him. Once again, a military state was declared and Major Daouda Malam Wanke, of Mainassara’s guard, assumed control. Unlike previous military leaders, however, Wanke claimed not to want the presidency. He vowed instead to oversee the transition of the government to a civilian-led democracy. International watchdogs and human rights groups, aghast at the bloody assassination, were skeptical and foreign aid was suspended. But Wanke worked quickly, turning to Nigeria for assistance in planning the transition to democratic rule. Six months later, Mamadou and six other political leaders were running for office.
In November of 1999 Tandja Mamadou was elected president with sixty percent of the vote. International observers agreed that the election was conducted freely and fairly, although it is estimated that only thirty percent of the population voted. In one of his first post-election press conferences, Mamadou stated, as quoted by www.brecorder.com: “My first priority will be political stability and then institutional and social stability.” He continued,”Then I will tackle the reconstruction of the country’s economy and finances around which all of today’s problems revolve.”
Mamadou has concentrated on meeting those goals, and according to the Panafrican News Agency website, “For Niger, the year 2000 was essentially a year of concrete moves to enhance political and social stability.” Among Mamadou’s first actions in office was the re-establishment of ties with other African democracies, including Nigeria. Not only would this help preserve the trade ties between the two nations, but Nigeria’s considerable clout could help prevent any future attempts at a military intervention in Niger’s new government. Mamadou has also worked hard to rebuild relations with the international community, and within a month of his assuming office, he traveled to France to meet with government and foreign aid officials. Following his visit French aid was restored to Niger. In September of 2000 the European Union committed to 63 billion francs in development projects in Niger. Then, in December of the same year the International Monetary Fund granted Niger 53 billion francs for structural improvements.
In addition to the financial crisis, Mamadou and his cabinet have also worked on the social crises that beset their nation. In September of 2000 the president led a “Flame of Peace” ceremony to celebrate the end of the Tuareg fighting that plagued northern Niger for nearly a decade. In that ceremony over 2500 weapons turned in by rebels were burned. In January of 2001 he began a project that would build a series of mini-dams and water reservoirs. The goal of the project was to build three dams a year in each district of the country. According to a report on the Panafrican News Agency website,“the project [is aimed] at alleviating poverty by improving agricultural production through the construction of water supply facilities, the development of arid lands, and the promotion of the fisheries sector.” The report went on to say that “the initiative is in partial fulfillment of the commitments [Mamadou] made to the people of Niger during his campaign for president to alleviate suffering, hunger, malnutrition, thirst, diseases, and ignorance.” In that vein, Mamadou has also launched a polio immunization program, literacy programs, and subsidies for grain and other commodities. He also instituted a ban on hunting to help protect Niger’s dwindling wildlife population that includes giraffes, lions, and rhinos.
Despite his successes, Mamadou’s tenure has not been without controversy and opposition. Just days following his swearing-in ceremony, there was a public outcry when Mamadou, in accordance with the constitution, revealed his assets. They included six villas, three houses, two vehicles, nearly a thousand head of cattle, and numerous high-ticket items such as televisions, refrigerators, and freezers. In a country where more than sixty percent of the population lives in desperate poverty and even water is a luxury, Mamadou’s admission of wealth was not welcome. Shortly afterwards, his government came under fire from human rights groups when it gave amnesty to participants in the 1996 and 1999 military coups. Famine, outbreaks of factional fighting, AIDS, tourist kidnappings, crime, and student unrest continued to plague the country, and opposition leaders regularly spoke against Mamadou, staging walkouts of government sessions, and hosting rallies in protest of the government’s actions. With many challenges ahead of him, Mamadou would have to rely on his political and military experience if he would lead his country into the future.
The Camel Express, February 2000.
Business Recorder, www.brecorder.com
Panafrican News Agency, www.allAfrica.com
"Mamadou, Tandja 1938–." Contemporary Black Biography. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 22, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/mamadou-tandja-1938
"Mamadou, Tandja 1938–." Contemporary Black Biography. . Retrieved October 22, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/mamadou-tandja-1938
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.