The first Afghan women's journal.
Irshad An-Niswaan (Lady's guide), the first Afghan women's journal, was established in March 1921 as a weekly in Kabul under the direction of three people: Asma Rasmiyya; the famous Afghan journalist Mahmud Tarzi; and the mother of Queen Surraya. Ruhafza, the editor of Irshad An-Niswaan, was related to Mahmud Tarzi. In addition to national and international news, Irshad An-Niswaan published articles of particular interest to women. Its mission was to inform women of important national and international issues and make them aware of their rights and responsibilities as mothers and citizens. The journal also provided an opportunity for young women writers to contribute articles for publication. Irshad An-Niswaan was published in Persian and was intended primarily for upper-class, educated women readers and female students. It ceased publication after the fall of King Amanullah in 1929.
In 1994, during the government of Burhanuddin Rabbani, a short-lived monthly bilingual women's magazine, in Persian and Pashtun, took the same name and was published in Kabul under the editorship of Laila Sarahat Rushani. It focused primarily on the social life and traditional activities of women but included articles on literature and politics as well.
see also afghanistan: overview; gender: gender and education; newspapers and print media: arab countries; queen surraya.
"Irshad An-Niswaan." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 26, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/irshad-niswaan
"Irshad An-Niswaan." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Retrieved September 26, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/irshad-niswaan
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.