Chalma (or Chalmita), a renowned pilgrimage site in Mexico and symbol of folk Catholicism, combining elements of indigenous and European faiths. According to legend, in 1539, Augustinian friars found an idol (possibly representing Tezcatlipoca) and evidence of sacrifices to it in a cave at Chalma. Later, when they went to replace the idol with a cross, they reputedly found the image broken in pieces and a crucifix already in its place. The idol had been the object of pilgrimages in pre-Hispanic times; subsequent treks were made from great distances to worship the miraculous new god and the nearby town's new patron, St. Michael, who also came to occupy a place at the sacred shrine. Which deity Oztoteotl (the "cave god"), as the idol came to be called, truly represented, and whether his attributes were transferred to Christ and/or St. Michael in the hearts of the indigenous people, are unresolved questions. Modern pilgrimages are lively events marked by floral displays, song, dance, and fireworks.
See alsoAugustinians .
Erna Fergusson, Fiesta in Mexico (1934), pp. 47-67, and Alejandra González Leyva, Chalma: Una devoción agustina (Toluca, 1991), provide an example of the folklore surrounding the shrine at Chalma. Gilberto Giménez offers details of a modern pilgrimage to Chalma in his Cultura popular y religión en el Anáhuac (1978).
Rodríguez-Shadow, María, and Robert Dennis Shadow. El pueblo del Señor: Las fiestas y peregrinaciones de Chalma. Toluca: Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, 2000.
"Chalma." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 12, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chalma
"Chalma." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved November 12, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chalma
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.