Skip to main content

Center for Advanced Military Studies (CAEM)

Center for Advanced Military Studies (CAEM)

Center for Advanced Military Studies (CAEM), a Peruvian institution for specialized higher military education created in 1950 under the rule of the de facto president General Manuel Odría. Its original objectives were to define national war doctrines, train Peruvian colonels aspiring to higher military posts, and relate the issues of national defense to national problems. It was similar in scope to contemporary military centers in France, the United States (Inter-American Defense College), Argentina, and Brazil.

Peruvian military training and education had been modeled since 1896 on the French military school (in part as a reaction to the German model used by the Chilean army at the time). The French model perceived the role of the military in a wider social and administrative dimension. With this perspective the Peruvian general Oscar Torres, President José Luis Bustamante y Rivero's minister of war, called as early as 1945 for the establishment of a specialized military training institution.

The CAEM's graduates and teaching staff began a gradual transformation in the military mentality toward a "new professionalism." They favored institutional military intervention in matters of national development, Indian "integration," and diminished foreign dependency. The CAEM played an important role in the military suppression of the peasant uprisings in Cuzco in the early 1960s through "civic action." In Cuzco the military introduced the first land reform ever executed in Peru in order to avoid further insurrections.

It has been assumed that the CAEM had a decisive influence among those who supported the 1968 military coup led by General Juan Velasco Alvarado against constitutional President Fernando Belaúnde. While some supporters of Velasco were CAEM graduates (such as General Jorge Fernández Maldonado), recent studies point to the much more important bearing of concepts of strategic internal and external defense (rather than the CAEM's developmental doctrines) expounded by the newly expanded military intelligence.

See alsoArmed Forces .


Alfred Stepan, The State and Society: Peru in Comparative Perspective (1978).

Daniel Masterson, Militarism and Politics in Latin America: Peru from Sánchez Cerro to Sendero Luminoso (1991).

Additional Bibliography

Masterson, Daniel M. Fuerza armada y sociedad en el Perú moderno: Un estudio sobre relaciones civiles militares, 1930–2000. Lima: Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Estratégicos, 2001.

                              Alfonso W. Quiroz

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Center for Advanced Military Studies (CAEM)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . 22 Jan. 2019 <>.

"Center for Advanced Military Studies (CAEM)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . (January 22, 2019).

"Center for Advanced Military Studies (CAEM)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved January 22, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.