Bravo, Nicolás (c. 1784–1854)

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Bravo, Nicolás (c. 1784–1854)

Nicolás Bravo (b. ca. 1784–1792; d. 22 April 1854) Mexican independence leader and politician. Born in Chilpancingo, Bravo and his family joined the insurgency, in which he distinguished himself in a series of campaigns against the royalists. Captured in 1817, he was imprisoned until October 1820. He supported the Plan of Iguala in 1821, emerging as one of the major political figures of the new order.

Although Bravo served in the regency in 1822, he later opposed Emperor Agustín de Iturbide, eventually becoming part of the government that replaced the emperor. Elected vice president in 1824, he became the Grand Master of the "aristocratic" Escoceses (Scottish rite Masons), and in January 1828 joined a conservative revolt against the growing power of the radical Yorkinos (York rite Masons), which failed and led to his exile to South America.

Upon his return, Bravo served as commander of the Army of the North, deputy to Congress, and interim president in 1839, 1842–1843, and 1846–1847. During the U.S. invasion in 1847, Bravo commanded troops in battles in Puebla, the defense of the capital, and the last stand in Chapultepec Castle, where he was captured. Although invited to join the revolution of Ayutla, he declined because of illness.

See alsoPlan of Iguala .


Leonard Parrish, "The Life of Nicolás Bravo, Mexican Patriot" (Ph.D. diss., University of Texas, 1951).

Jaime E. Rodríguez O., "The Struggle for the Nation: The First Federalist-Centralist Conflict in Mexico," in The Americas 49 (July 1992): 1-22.

Additional Bibliography

Trueba, Alfonso. Nicolás Bravo: El mexicano que perdono. Mexico: Editoral Jus, 1976.

                                    Jaime E. RodrÍguez O.