Bolaños, César (1931–)
Bolaños, César (1931–)
The Peruvian avant-garde composer César Bolaños, born June 4, 1931, in Lima, was among the first in his country to write electronic, computer, and music theater works making use of multimedia and indeterminacy in which chance procedures affect both composition and performance. Since 1970 he has concentrated on his research as a musicologist, specializing in ancient and traditional Andean musical instruments and practices, including dance, as well as modern Peruvian music and electronic media. In his native Lima, Bolaños was a pupil of European émigré composer and musicologist Andrés Sas, and in 1958 he went to New York City, studying electronic music at the RCA Institute of Electronic Technology (1960–1963).
His most fruitful period as a composer took place at the Latin American Center for Advanced Musical Studies at the Torcuato di Tella Institute in Buenos Aires (1963–1970), both as student (of composers Luigi Dallapiccola, Alberto Ginastera, Olivier Messiaen, and Luigi Nono) and as professor (of electro-acoustic composition and audiovisual theory and practice). He was also instrumental in the foundation of the center's electronic music laboratory, and created there his first electronic tape composition, Intensidad y altura (1964), based on a poem by César Vallejo. His computer music was influenced by his collaboration with mathematician Mauricio Milchberg, and Bolaños explicitly used the acronym ESEPCO—for estructuras sonora-expresivas por computación (digital sonic-expressive structures)—in the titles of two of his works from 1970. Upon his return to Lima in 1973 he became director of the National Cultural Institute (INC), and also taught at the National Conservatory of Music and Lima University.
Other important compositions by Bolaños include Divertimento no. 3 for chamber ensemble (1967); Alfa-Omega for two narrators, theatrical mixed choir, electric guitar, double bass, two percussionists, two dancers, tape, slide projections, and lights (1967), which utilizes biblical texts; I-10-AIFG/Rbt-1 for three narrators, horn, trombone, electric guitar, two percussionists, two operators for keyboard controlled lights and six radios, nine slide projectors with automatic synchronization, tape, and instrumental amplification, with black lights for the reading of scores and "programmed conducting" using synchronized light signals (1968); and Ñacahuasu for chamber orchestra and narrator (1970), based on texts from Che Guevara's Bolivian diary. After an almost fifteen-year hiatus, he composed Pucayaku for piano and percussion (1984).
Béhague, Gerard. "Countercurrents: Since 1950." In Music in Latin America: An Introduction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1979.
Estensoro, Juan Carlos. "Bolaños, César." In The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd edition, edited by Stanley Sadie. New York: Grove, 2001.
Iturriaga, Enrique. "Bolaños Vildoso, César." In Dicionario de música española e hispanoamericana, edited by Emilio Casares Rodicio. Madrid: Sociedad General de Autores y Editores, 1999.
Pan American Union, Music Section. "César Bolaños." In Compositores de América: Dados biográficos y catálogo de sus obras, Vol. 17. Washington, D.C.: Secretaria General, Organización de los Estados Americanos, 1971.
Pinilla, Enrique. "La música en el siglo XX: Tercera generación." In Historia del Perú, Vol. 9, Procesos e institu-ciones. Lima: J. Mejía Baca, 1980.
Pinilla, Enrique. "César Bolaños." In La música en el Perú. Lima: Patronato Popular y Porvenir pro Música Clásica, 1988.
Luiz Fernando Lopes
"Bolaños, César (1931–)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 21, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bolanos-cesar-1931
"Bolaños, César (1931–)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved January 21, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bolanos-cesar-1931
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.