tem·per / ˈtempər/ • n. 1. [in sing.] a person's state of mind seen in terms of their being angry or calm: he rushed out in a very bad temper. ∎ a tendency to become angry easily: I know my temper gets the better of me at times. ∎ an angry state of mind: Drew had walked out in a temper | I only said it in a fit of temper. ∎ a character or mode of thought: the temper of the late sixties. 2. the degree of hardness and elasticity in steel or other metal: the blade rapidly heats up and the metal loses its temper. • v. [tr.] 1. improve the hardness and elasticity of (steel or other metal) by reheating and then cooling it. ∎ improve the consistency or resiliency of (a substance) by heating it or adding particular substances to it. 2. (often be tempered with) serve as a neutralizing or counterbalancing force to (something): their idealism is tempered with realism. 3. tune (a piano or other instrument) so as to adjust the note intervals correctly. PHRASES: keep (or lose) one's temper refrain (or fail to refrain) from becoming angry. out of temper in an irritable mood.DERIVATIVES: tem·per·er n. ORIGIN: Old English temprian ‘bring something into the required condition by mixing it with something else,’ from Latin temperare ‘mingle, restrain oneself.’ Sense development was probably influenced by Old French temprer ‘to temper, moderate.’ The noun originally denoted a proportionate mixture of elements or qualities, also the combination of the four bodily humors, believed in medieval times to be the basis of temperament, hence sense 1 (late Middle English). Compare with temperament.
"temper." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 25, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/temper-0
"temper." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved March 25, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/temper-0
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.