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The Quapaw (Kwapa, Akansa, Arkansas) lived at or near the mouth of the Arkansas River where it meets the Mississippi River in southeastern Arkansas. They now live on a federal trust area in northeastern Oklahoma. They speak a Dhegiha Siouan language and numbered over twelve hundred in the 1980s.


Baird, W. David (1979). The Quapaw Indians: A History of the Downstream People. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Thompson, V. H. (1955). "A History of the Quapaw." Chronicles of Oklahoma 33:360-383.