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1783-1815: Law and Justice: Chronology

1783-1815: Law and Justice: Chronology

IMPORTANT EVENTS OF 1783-1815

IMPORTANT EVENTS OF 1783-1815

1783

  • The Treaty of Paris is signed and establishes the legitimacy of Loyalist land claims.
  • The Commonwealth of Massachusetts forbids slavery.

1784

  • Tapping Reeve opens the first proprietary law school in Litchfield, Connecticut.

1785

  • The state of New York outlaws slavery.

1786

  • Pennsylvania experiments with penal reform through the wheelbarrow law, a statute that requires convicts to labor on public works projects.
  • New Jersey outlaws slavery.

1787

  • Benjamin Rush writes An Enquiry into the Effects of Public Punishments Upon Criminals, and Upon Society, a treatise against capital punishment.
  • 25 Jan. Gen. William Shepherd routs insurgents under Daniel Shays at Springfield, Massachusetts.

1788

  • 21 June New Hampshire becomes the ninth state to ratify the Constitution. With this ratification the Constitution becomes effective.

1789

  • 24 Sept. Congress passes the Judiciary Act.
  • 26 Sept. Congress confirms President George Washingtons appointments to the U.S. Supreme Court.

1790

  • 1 Feb. The first meeting of the U.S. Supreme Court occurs in New York City.
  • 15 Dec. James Wilson begins his law lectures at the College of Philadelphia.

1791

  • Congress passes an excise or internal tax on whiskey.

1792

  • In Moore v. Cherry the South Carolina Supreme Court affirms the power of a judge to instruct a jury on the law.

1793

  • A decision is rendered in Chisholm v. Georgia, allowing a state to be sued by a citizen of another state.
  • The College of William and Mary graduates Americas first law-degree candidate.

1794

1795

1796

  • In Ware v. Hylton the Supreme Court declares that federal treaties supersede state laws.
  • John Adams is elected President of the United States.
  • 4 Mar. Oliver Ellsworth is confirmed as Chief Justice.

1797

1798

1799

  • Fries Rebellion occurs in eastern Pennsylvania.

1800

1801

  • John Jay refuses reappointment as U.S. Supreme Court chief justice.
  • 4 Feb. John Marshall is sworn in as chief justice.
  • 13 Feb. Congress enacts a new Judiciary Act.
  • 3 Mar. The Sedition Act expires.

1802

  • Congress repeals the Naturalization Act.
  • Congress repeals the Judiciary Act of 1801.

1803

1804

1805

  • 4 Feb. Justice Samuel Chases trial begins in the Senate.
  • 1 Mar. Chase is acquitted of all charges.

1806

  • 8 June George Wythe dies.
  • 14 Dec. Thomas Jeffersons second appointment to the Supreme Court, Henry Brockhoist Livingston, is confirmed as associate justice.

1807

  • Congress enacts the Embargo Act.
  • 3 Aug. Aaron Burr goes on trial for treason.
  • 1 Sept. Burr is found not guilty by a circuit court in Richmond, Virginia, on the grounds that he was not present when an overt act of treason was committed.

1808

  • Supreme Court Justice William Johnson defies President Thomas Jefferson and refuses to enforce the Embargo Act.

1809

  • In the United States v. Peters the Supreme Court declares that a state legislature cannot reverse a federal court decree.

1810

  • The Supreme Court renders an opinion in Fletcher v. Peck, declaring that a state legislature cannot abrogate a contract.

1811

  • Justice Samuel Chase dies.
  • 18 Nov. Joseph Story and Gabriel Duvall are confirmed as associate justices.

1812

  • In the United States v. Hudson & Goodwin the Supreme Court holds that no federal court could exercise common law jurisdiction in criminal cases.

1813

  • The American Blackstone St. George Tucker is nominated to the circuit court in Virginia.

1814

  • 24 Aug. British troops capture Washington, D.C., and burn most of the public buildings. The Supreme Court chamber, located in a first-floor room in the Capitol, is gutted, and whatever furniture, books, and records remain are vandalized.

1815

  • Feb. Temporary quarters for the Supreme Court are established in the Pennsylvania Avenue home of Elias Caldwell, the court clerk.

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