Santiago, Battle of
Adm. Pascual Cervera, his ships in range of U.S. artillery fire, now considered Santiago untenable and on 3 July attempted to escape the harbor. His four poorly maintained armored cruisers and two torpedo boat destroyers were no match for Sampson's five battleships and two armored cruisers. In less than three hours, Sampson's squadron, at a cost of one man killed, destroyed all of Cervera's vessels. More than 300 Spanish sailors died. On 17 July, the Spanish land force commander surrendered Santiago, 28,000 troops, and the entire eastern end of Cuba to General Shafter.
The destruction of its Atlantic Fleet and the capture of Cuba's second largest city induced Spain to sue for peace. The campaign was hailed as a triumph for the modern, steel‐built U.S. Navy, as well as for the U.S. Army and Theodore Roosevelt's famous volunteer cavalry regiment, the “Rough Riders,” although the army suffered supply problems and subsequent outbreaks of malaria and yellow fever.
[See also Cuba, U.S. Military Involvement in; Disease, Tropical.]
Graham A. Cosmas , An Army for Empire: The United States Army in the Spanish‐American War, 1971; 2nd ed., 1994.
David F. Trask , The War with Spain in 1898, 1981.
Graham A. Cosmas
"Santiago, Battle of." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 26, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/santiago-battle
"Santiago, Battle of." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Retrieved May 26, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/santiago-battle
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.