Paris Peace Agreement
“Backchannel” negotiations between Nixon's national security adviser, Henry Kissinger, and the special adviser to the North Vietnamese Politburo, Le Duc Tho, took place in 1970–71. On 8 October 1972, Hanoi offered a draft in which, according to Kissinger, the North Vietnamese “dropped their demand for a coalition government” and for the removal of the South Vietnamese leaders. Nixon temporarily halted the bombing of North Vietnam. But Kissinger failed to convince South Vietnamese president Nguyen Van Thieu to accept the text or Hanoi's timetable. On 26 October, Kissinger declared that since Washington and Hanoi were close to a final agreement, “peace is at hand.” He spoke also of further negotiations to accommodate Saigon's objections, but refused to elaborate. After Nixon was reelected, further talks with Hanoi led nowhere, convincing Kissinger to cable President Nixon to “increase pressure enormously through bombing and other means.”
U.S. round‐the‐clock bombing, including the use of B‐52 bomber aircraft, began on 18 December. The attacks ended 30 December and negotiations resumed in early January 1973. On 27 January, the agreement was signed in Paris—although on separate pages in order to accommodate Nguyen Van Thieu's refusal to recognize the political status of Hanoi's arm in the South, the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam (PRG). President Nixon also secretly indicated to Hanoi that the United States was prepared to consider supporting a postwar reconstruction program, assuming the peace held.
The agreement provided for an immediate, internationally supervised cease‐fire, the withdrawal of all foreign military forces from South Vietnam, the exchange of POWs, limitations on what military assistance could be provided to Communist and non‐Communist forces in the South, and formation of a National Council of Reconciliation and Concord.
Kissinger and Tho were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Price for 1973, but the latter declined to accept it. The agreement met with skepticism both in the United States and in South Vietnam, where there was much bitterness that the United States had abandoned its ally. By the fall of 1973, the cease‐fire was being violated on both sides, local Communist forces refused to cooperate in the search for U.S. soldiers listed as missing in action, and high‐level U.S.–North Vietnamese contacts ceased. The Paris Peace Agreement was swiftly overtaken by a “postwar war.”
[See also Bombing of Civilians; Vietnam War: Military and Diplomatic Course; Vietnam War: Changing Interpretations.]
Allan E. Goodman , The Lost Peace: America's Search for a Negotiated Settlement of the Vietnam War, 1978.
William S. Turley , The Second Indochina War: A Short Political and Military History, 1986.
David L. Anderson, ed., Shadow on the White House: Presidents and the Vietnam War, 1945–1975, 1993.
Allan E. Goodman
"Paris Peace Agreement." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 13, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/paris-peace-agreement
"Paris Peace Agreement." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Retrieved November 13, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/paris-peace-agreement
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.