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Pariṇāmavāda. The Hindu Saṃkhya teaching of evolution: effects exist latently within causes (since otherwise eventualities would be random and inconsistent in relation to similar causes); all that is required is the appropriate ‘trigger’ to release the latent effect. However, such latency may mean that the direction of unfolding (udbhāva) can run backwards with equal consistency (anudbhāva).