James, Daniel "Chappie"
James, Daniel "Chappie"
February 11, 1920
February 25, 1978
The first black four-star general, Daniel "Chappie" James Jr. joined Tuskegee's pioneer black Army Air Corps unit in 1937. He served in World War II and led a fighter group in Korea, inventing air tactics to support ground forces and receiving the Distinguished Service Medal. In Vietnam he was vice commander of the Eighth Tactical Fighter Wing, earning the Legion of Merit award. National attention accompanied his speeches supporting the war and black soldiers' reasons to fight.
Afterward he commanded Wheelus Air Force Base in Libya, then became Defense Department public affairs officer and a popular speaker. He received his fourth star with command of the crucial North American Air Defense, monitoring possible air and missile attacks.
Skills and overwhelming personality smoothed James's unprecedented ascent. Generally opposed to mass movements to improve blacks' situation, he cited his mother's dictum that personal excellence could overcome all barriers. He applauded peaceful demonstrations, however; indeed, the violence at Selma, Alabama, made him consider resigning. He brushed off personal experiences with racism, although he seldom wore civilian clothes so his uniform might shield him. Blacks sometimes criticized him, but many Americans liked his support of the Vietnam War and his view of race relations that emphasized individualism.
Bracey, Earnest M. Daniel "Chappy" James: The First African American Four Star General. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2003.
McGovern, James R. Black Eagle: General Daniel "Chappie" James, Jr. University: University of Alabama Press, 1985.
Phelps, J. Alfred. Chappie: America's First Black Four-Star General: The Life and Times of Daniel James, Jr. Novato, Calif.: Presidio, 1991.
elizabeth fortson arroyo (1996)
"James, Daniel "Chappie"." Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 24, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/james-daniel-chappie
"James, Daniel "Chappie"." Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. . Retrieved May 24, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/james-daniel-chappie
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.