Grenada, U.S. Intervention in
To the strongly anti‐Communist U.S. president, Ronald Reagan, the possibility of a Soviet client‐state in such a strategic location was unacceptable. The airstrip was seen as a threat to vital Caribbean sealanes and the Panama Canal, and it could have been used for staging Cuban and Soviet military flights to Africa and Nicaragua. U.S. officials also expressed their concern for the safety of approximately 1,000 Americans, mostly medical students, living in Grenada. The day after Bishop was murdered, a U.S. Navy task force, with Marines, was ordered to Grenada.
U.S. military intervention in Grenada in 1983, code‐named “Urgent Fury,” was hastily planned but overwhelming. The invasion force included the Independence Carrier Battle Group; the helicopter carrier Guam and Amphibious Squadron Four; 1,700 Marines of the 22nd Marine Amphibious Unit; two army ranger battalions; a ready brigade of the 82nd Airborne Division; various special operations units; and token forces from the OECS. It turned out that the island was defended by only about 500 to 600 Grenadian troops; 2,000 to 2,500 militiamen; and 750 to 800 Cubans, mostly military construction workers.
U.S. forces began landing on Grenada on 25 October. Their objectives were to seize the airports, destroy Radio Free Grenada, and ensure the safety of resident U.S. citizens. By 28 October, Grenada was firmly under the control of U.S. and OECS forces. Although ultimately successful, there were a number of serious problems with Urgent Fury, among them inadequate and poorly disseminated intelligence information and failures of communications and coordination failure among army, navy, and Marine units. The brief battle for Grenada cost the lives of 18 U.S. servicemen, including eleven soldiers, 3 Marines, and 4 Navy SEALS; another 116 U.S. servicemen were wounded. Cuban casualties were 25 dead and 59 wounded; Grenadian casualties 45 dead and 350 wounded.
[See also Caribbean and Latin America, U.S. Military Involvement in the.]
William C. Gilmore , The Grenada Intervention: Analysis and Documentation, 1984.
Paul Seabury and Walter A. McDougall, eds., The Grenada Papers, 1984.
"Grenada, U.S. Intervention in." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 14, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/grenada-us-intervention
"Grenada, U.S. Intervention in." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Retrieved December 14, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/grenada-us-intervention
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.