At its zenith in the 14th cent., after renewal by Robert I at Corbeil (1326), the alliance was an essential element in Scotland's success in the Wars of Independence, and was continued in 1371 and 1391. The Hundred Years War (1337–1453) emphasized the alliance's strengths as successive English kings found they could not conquer France without defeating Scotland.
The alliance remained an effective way of pressurizing England in the 15th cent., and was reaffirmed in 1428 and 1448. However, Louis XI of France's treaty with England, ignoring Scotland (1463), and James III's alliance with England (1474), illustrated changing Franco-Scottish relations. The alliance was renewed in 1484, 1492, and 1512, although neither nation intended to implement it actively. However, when Henry VIII attacked France (1513), James IV decided to abide by the alliance, resulting in disastrous defeat at Flodden.
The 16th cent. saw Scotland at the whim of swiftly changing European diplomacy. Alternately courted and abandoned by France, the Scots were reluctant to repeat Flodden on their ally's behalf. With the advent of the Reformation, many now favoured protestant England. The alliance was renewed by marriage arrangements for James V (1537) and Mary, queen of Scots (1548), but Scotland's refusal to be exploited by France was eventually reflected in the revolution of 1559–60 which saw England embraced, and the Franco-Scottish alliance finally renounced.
"Franco-Scottish alliance." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 19, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/franco-scottish-alliance
"Franco-Scottish alliance." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved July 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/franco-scottish-alliance
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.