Defense Intelligence Agency
In 1961, Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara decided to rationalize much of the DoD's structure, and to improve resource management for broader defense intelligence efforts. The result was the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA). Each service continued to argue, however, that it had unique intelligence needs that could not be met by a “joint” agency, and so the separate service units survived as well.
DIA is headed by a three‐star military officer, a position filled by rotation among the services. DIA has been through several major reorganizations in the past few years, although its major functions remain the same: the collection and analysis of intelligence specifically related to military requirements. Collection is carried out overtly by defense attachés and covertly by the relatively new Defense HUMINT (Human Intelligence) Service (DHS). The functions of attachés remain known to host governments; DHS collectors operate under cover. DIA produces independent analyses and contributes to communitywide intelligence estimates. It is one of three “all‐source” intelligence analysis centers (along with CIA and the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research).
The DIA has sometimes found itself torn between its military customers (the Joint Chiefs of Staff and their organization) and civilian customers in the DoD. The Joint Chiefs may seek analysis to support specific or preferred positions; the civilians may prove skeptical of military‐produced analysis, which often tends toward more pessimistic assumptions about conflict and combat.
Competition with the military service intelligence units is less of a problem. But DIA has been among the intelligence agencies most severely hit by the end of the Cold War, which led to a 25 percent reduction in its personnel.
[See also Central Intelligence Agency; Intelligence, Military and Political.]
Mark M. Lowenthal , U.S. Intelligence: Evolution and Anatomy, 1984; 2nd ed. 1992.
Patrick Mescall , The Birth of the Defense Intelligence Agency, in Rhodri Jeffrey‐Jones and Andrew Lownie, eds., North American Spies: New Revisionist Essays, 1991.
Mark M. Lowenthal
"Defense Intelligence Agency." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 19, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/defense-intelligence-agency
"Defense Intelligence Agency." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Retrieved February 19, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/defense-intelligence-agency
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.