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Convention of 1818


On October 20, 1818, a convention was signed by the United States and Britain which established part of the present-day border between the United States and Canada. The agreement stipulated that 49 degrees north latitude (or the 49th parallel) would mark the boundary, from Lake of the Woods (in present-day northern Minnesota, southwestern Ontario, and southeastern Manitoba) west to the Rocky Mountains (in present-day Montana and Alberta). The two countries further agreed that for 10 years they would jointly occupy the Pacific Northwest territoriesthe area that begins at 42 degrees north latitude (the southern boundary of present-day Oregon) and extends north to 54 degrees 40 minutes north latitude (in present-day British Columbia). However, even before the agreement was made, and even before the United States and Britain had fought the War of 1812 (18121814), American expansionists had begun to demand the seizure of Canada from Great Britain. Thus, after the eastern boundary had been established by the Convention of 1818, expansionists began to suggest that the Pacific Northwest territories ought to be part of a strategic claim made by the United States.

See also: Expansionists, Oregon Country Cession, War of 1812

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