Skip to main content


Calgacus is the name given by Tacitus to the leader of the Caledonian confederacy at the climactic battle against the Romans under Agricola at Mons Graupius in 83/4. Calgacus appears only to give a speech inveighing against the evils of Rome and exhorting his followers to resist as last of the free Britons. It contains the famous epigram ‘ubi solitudinem faciunt pacem appellant’, ‘they create a desert and call it peace’. However, such set-piece speeches are a convention of Graeco-Roman histories; and as such we are hearing the words and thoughts of Tacitus, not Calgacus.

Alan Simon Esmonde Cleary

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Calgacus." The Oxford Companion to British History. . 23 Feb. 2019 <>.

"Calgacus." The Oxford Companion to British History. . (February 23, 2019).

"Calgacus." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved February 23, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.