James River and Kanawha Company
JAMES RIVER AND KANAWHA COMPANY
JAMES RIVER AND KANAWHA COMPANY. The vision of connecting tidewater Virginia with the Ohio River arose in colonial Virginia, with George Washington as a leading proponent. In 1785, the James River Company was founded to make improvements on the James River, and Washington was its first president. In 1820, the company's mandate was extended to connecting the James River to the Kanawha River and thus the Ohio, but it failed to accomplish its mission.
A new venture, the James River and Kanawha Company, was incorporated in 1832 and organized in 1835 to accomplish its predecessor's task. In 1851 the canal reached Buckhannon in western Virginia (later West Virginia), but with the company unable to refinance the venture, the canal ended there. Facing fierce railway competition, the canal company attempted to reach Clifton Forge and make a connection with the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad by establishing the Buchanan and Clifton Forge Railway Company, organized in 1876. Work began in 1877 but languished because of financial exigency, and the company was sold to the Richmond and Alleghany Railway Company, which began construction of a 230-mile line from Richmond to Clifton Forge. The work was expedited by laying track on the canal towpath. In 1888 the Richmond and Alleghany Company was sold to the C&O Railroad Company.
Dunaway, Wayland F. "History of the James River and Kanawha Company." Ph.D. diss. Columbia University Studies in History, Economics, and Public Law. Vol. 104. New York: Columbia University Press, 1922.
Kemp, Emory L. The Great Kanawha Navigation. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2000.
"James River and Kanawha Company." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 15, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/james-river-and-kanawha-company
"James River and Kanawha Company." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved October 15, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/james-river-and-kanawha-company
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.