Louis, Joe (1914–1981)
Joe Louis (1914–1981)
In the 1930s, prizefighter Joe Louis emerged as the nation's first African American sports hero. Born Joseph Louis Barrow in Alabama, the "Brown Bomber" held one of boxing's most impressive career records: seventy-one fights, sixty-eight wins, and fifty-four knockouts. However, his greatest achievement was his universal popularity despite America's racial divide.
Louis became a national hero with his 1938 victory over German Max Schmeling (1905–). Their fight was one of the most celebrated events in boxing history. The fight came to symbolize the political conflicts between the United States and Nazi Germany (though Schmeling was not a Nazi). Louis was soon the world's most famous black man and was a source of pride to millions of African Americans. Whites also responded to the champ's appealing personality and admired him for postponing his career to enlist in the army during World War II (1939–45). Louis held the world heavyweight championship from 1939 until 1949, when he retired. Louis's later years were plagued with drug abuse and financial problems. Still, he is remembered as a boxing legend and an early pioneer in the civil rights movement (see entry under 1960s—The Way We Lived in volume 4).
For More Information
Gordon, Robert, director. The Joe Louis Story (film). United Artists, 1953.
Jakoubek, Robert E. Joe Louis: Heavyweight Champion. New York: Chelsea House, 1990.
Joe Louis: The Boxer Who Beat Hitler (video). A & E Network, 2001.
Joe Louis: The Brown Bomber.http://www.cmgww.com/sports/louis/louis.html (accessed February 13, 2002).
Lipsyte, Robert. Joe Louis: A Champ for All America. New York: HarperCollins, 1994.
"Louis, Joe (1914–1981)." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/culture-magazines/louis-joe-1914-1981
"Louis, Joe (1914–1981)." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. . Retrieved September 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/culture-magazines/louis-joe-1914-1981
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.