•Kalinin • linen • bedlinen
•underlinen • feminine
, phone-in, ronin, serotonin
•Bakunin • run-in • melanin • santonin
•crankpin • backspin • hatpin
•tenpin • hairpin • tailspin • wheelspin
•stickpin • kingpin • Crispin • linchpin
•tiepin • topspin • clothespin
•pushpin • terrapin • Turpin • Karin
•chagrin • aspirin • Catrin • Kathryn
, Perrin, serin
•Sanhedrin • epinephrine • dextrin
•brethren • Montenegrin • pyrethrin
, florin, foreign
•doctrine • sovereign • Aldrin
•Paludrine • murrain
•tambourin • mandarin • warfarin
•tamarin • Catherine
•culverin • Mazarin
an official in any of the senior grades of the former imperial Chinese civil service
. Mandarins were chosen by examination, and there were nine grades, each of which was distinguished by the material from which the round ornament or ‘button’ on top of the official headgear was made. From the early 18th century, Mandarin has also been used for the standard literary and official form of Chinese.
Recorded in English in the late 16th century, the word comes from Portuguese mandarim
, via Malay, from Hindi mantrī
‘counsellor’. The current transferred meaning of a powerful official or senior bureaucrat, especially one perceived as reactionary and secretive, developed in the early 20th century.
The mandarin orange
may be named from the colour of the fruit being likened to the official yellow robes of a mandarin.
Mandarin (măn´dərĬn) [Port. mandar=to govern, or from Malay mantri=counselor of state], a high official of imperial China. For each of the nine grades there was a different colored button worn on the dress cap. Mandarin Chinese was the language spoken by the official class and was based on the Beijing dialect. A version of Mandarin Chinese, known as putonghua [common language], is now taught throughout the country, and it is the official national language. A first or second language for roughly half the nation's population, it is widely spoken in native Chinese regions except along the southeastern coast, where the Cantonese, Fukienese, and Shanghai languages (considered by some to be Chinese dialects) are dominant. See Chinese.
Chinese official. XVI. — Pg. mandarin
command) — Malay mantĕri
— Hindi mantrī
:- Skr. mantrín-
counsellor, f. mántra-
counsel (rel. to MIND