# basic mathematical symbols

**basic mathematical symbols**

+ | plus; positive |

− | minus; negative |

± | plus or minus; positive or negative; degree of accuracy |

× | multiplied by (‘times’) (332) |

÷ | divided by (6 4 2) |

/ | divided by; ratio of (2:1) |

! | factorial (4! 5 4333231) |

= | equal to |

≠ | not equal to |

≡ | identical with |

≢ | not identical with |

≙ | corresponds to |

: | ratio of (2:1) |

< | proportionately equals (2:3 < 4:6) |

∼ | approximately equal to; equivalent to; similar to |

> | greater than |

≫ | much greater than |

≯ | not greater than |

< | less than |

≪ | much less than |

≮ | not less than |

≥ | greater than or equal to |

≤ | less than or equal to |

∝ | directly proportional to |

() | parentheses |

[] | brackets |

{} | braces |

∞ | infinity |

Æ | approaches the limit |

√ | square root |

3œ, 4œ | cube root, fourth root, etc |

% | per cent |

′ | prime; minute(s) of arc; foot/feet |

″ | double prime; second(s) of arc; inch(es) |

> | arc of circle |

8 | degree of arc |

§ | equiangular |

⊥ | perpendicular |

∥ | parallel |

∴ | therefore |

∵ | because |

D | increment |

∑ | summation |

∏ | product |

∫ | integral sign |

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**basic mathematical symbols**