Cousteau, Jacques Marine Environmental Protection Advocate (1910–1997)
MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ADVOCATE (1910–1997)
Jacques Yves Cousteau was the twentieth century's best-known advocate for marine environmental protection. He produced 115 documentary films and television programs about adventures on his research ship, Calypso. He was also the coinventor of the aqualung or "scuba" tank.
Cousteau achieved international fame with his role as narrator and star of the television series The Undersea World of Jacques Cousteau. During his lifetime, he received numerous awards and honors. Among them were three Oscars and ten Emmy Awards for his films and television programs and the U.N.'s International Environmental Prize in 1977.
Cousteau trained as a pilot at the French naval academy, but injuries from an auto accident in 1933 prevented him from pursuing an aviation career. Soon thereafter he developed an interest in the undersea world and became obsessed with developing snorkels, bodysuits, and other diving gear. In the early 1940s he worked with a Parisian engineer to invent a regulator for a compressed air tank, a self-contained apparatus that allowed free movement and breathing underwater. Scuba diving was thus born.
Scuba was a great improvement over the heavy diving suits used at the time. Cousteau used scuba to help the French resistance during World War II and was awarded the Légion d'Honneur for his service. After the war, Cousteau developed scuba diving as part of a French naval research group. He also wanted to challenge age-old superstitions and open the undersea world to scientific exploration.
Cousteau was initially known for his 1953 best-selling book The Silent World. A film by the same title won a 1957 Academy Award for best documentary. Cousteau became director of the Oceanographic Institute of Monaco and, in that position, led a successful campaign to stop nuclear waste dumping in the Mediterranean. He also established experiments on deep undersea living near the continental shelf called Conshelf I, II, and III. Much of his environmental work was conducted by an organization he founded in 1973, the Cousteau Society.
see also Ocean Dumping.
DuTemple, Lesley A. (2000). Jacques Cousteau. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publishing Group.
King, Roger. (2000). Jacques Cousteau and the Undersea World. Broomall, PA: Chelsea House Publishers.
Cousteau Society. "Cousteau People: Jacques Cousteau, Founder." Available from http://www.cousteausociety.org/tcs_people.html.
"Cousteau, Jacques Marine Environmental Protection Advocate (1910–1997)." Pollution A to Z. . Encyclopedia.com. 11 Dec. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.
"Cousteau, Jacques Marine Environmental Protection Advocate (1910–1997)." Pollution A to Z. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 11, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/educational-magazines/cousteau-jacques-marine-environmental-protection-advocate-1910-1997
"Cousteau, Jacques Marine Environmental Protection Advocate (1910–1997)." Pollution A to Z. . Retrieved December 11, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/educational-magazines/cousteau-jacques-marine-environmental-protection-advocate-1910-1997
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.