Skip to main content


Neo-Liberty. Italian architectural movement which evolved in the late 1950s as an antidote to International Modernism, notably where historic town centres were about to be wrecked by devotees of CIAM and the Athens Charter. The term was invented in order to imply (quite fallaciously) that the movement was a mere revival of Italian Art Nouveau (Stile Liberty): those responsible for the attack were largely led by Banham. However, with architects such as Gregotti in the vanguard, and support from figures such as Rossi, Aulenti, and others, the movement intended to reverse the suppression of truth and the destruction of history that had been part of the Modernist agenda from the beginning. It was partially successful, especially in parts of Europe and the USA, although the disciples of Banham and others still managed to discount its importance even at the beginning of C21. It became closely identified with Neo-Rationalism.


Architectural Review, cxxv/747 (Apr. 1959), 231–5; and cxxvi/754 (Dec. 1959), 341–4;
Cellini et al. (1985);
Jane Turner (1996)

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Neo-Liberty." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . 19 Apr. 2019 <>.

"Neo-Liberty." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . (April 19, 2019).

"Neo-Liberty." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Retrieved April 19, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.