Kazakov, Matvey Feodorovich

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Kazakov, Matvey Feodorovich (1738–1812). Russian Neo-Classical architect, who was influential in giving a Classical character to late-C18 and early C19 Moscow. He studied with Dmitri Vasil'yevich Ukhtomski (1719–74), later assisting later assisting Pyotr Romanovich Nikitin (1735–c.90) in the rebuilding (1763–7) of Tver' after the fire of 1762: Kazakov was responsible for the design of the Town Hall, Gentry Club, School, and Salt Store, which were formed on more severely Classical lines than the Baroque which previously had been de rigueur. From 1768 to 1774 he worked with Bazhenov and other on the enormous Kremlin Palace project (1767–74) and (probably) the Pashkov Palace, Moscow (1784–6—a boldly articulated Classical design) before setting up on his own in Moscow, creating palaces, hospitals, official buildings, and churches in a pure Classical style. His Senate Building, Kremlin, Moscow (1776–87), was designed with a Doric rotunda containing an internal Corinthian Order, and is one of the most distinguished works of Russian Neo-Classicism. Kazakov travelled in France and Italy, and developed a taste for the works of Palladio, as is evident in his Golitsyn Hospital (1794–1801), Demidov House (1789–91), and Batashev House (1798–1802). Other works include the Churches of St Philip the Metropolitan (1777–88—a rotunda), Sts Cosmas and Damian (1780s), and the Ascension (1780s), the ‘Old’ University (1786—later remodelled), and the impressive Hall of the Noblemen's Assembly (Hall of Columns—1784–6).

Kazakov collaborated with Quarengi and others on the Sheremetev Palace, Ostankino (1791–8), one of the grandest houses of the time, with an opulent theatre and various pavilions in the grounds, including ‘Italian’ and even ‘Egyptian’ fabriques. As a Goth he produced curious effects, as in the Petrovsky Palace, near Moscow (1775–82).

Bibliography

G. Hamilton (1983);
Middleton & and Watkin (1987)
Jane Turner (1996)