Skip to main content

Halfpenny, William

Halfpenny, William (d. 1755). English architect and carpenter (alias Michael Hoare), he is known as the author of several successful pattern-books for domestic buildings, among the first of which was Practical Architecture (c.1724), a cheap, clear guide to the Orders and various architectural elements drawing on Campbell's Vitruvius Britannicus (1715). He disseminated Gothick and Chinoiserie designs in his Rural Architecture in the Gothic Taste, Chinese and Gothic Architecture properly ornamented (both 1752 and both with his son, John Halfpenny), and Rural Architecture in the Chinese Taste (1752–5, parts of which were by John). With these, Improvements in Architecture and Carpentry (1754), The Art of Sound Building (1725), and other publications, he and Langley dominated the pattern-book market of the time. In his A New and Compleat System of Architecture (1749–59) there are indications he may have known the Irish Palladian architect Pearce, and indeed he seems to have been involved in designing in Ireland, notably a horse-barracks at Hillsborough, Co. Down (1732), and Waterford (1739—where he surveyed the cathedral and made drawings for a new Classical building which was not realized). In spite of his debt to Campbell, Halfpenny was never a polished Palladian, and his work drew on Baroque elements. His publications clearly had a profound effect on the appearance of many cathedral-and market-towns throughout England, while his Twelve Beautiful Designs for Farm Houses (1750) and other publications showed he was capable of designing for the countryside as well (he designed a Chinese bridge at Croome Court, Worcs. (c.1752) ). From c.1730 he settled in Bristol (whence he probably travelled to Ireland), and designed several buildings there (including the Redland Chapel (c.1740–3) ), although none is particularly distinguished. He or his son may have been responsible for the charming Gothick orangery at Frampton-on-Severn, Glos. (c.1750). At least twelve of his publications were known in the American colonies before 1776, so his work was influential in the USA too.


Colvin (1995);
Cruickshank (ed.) (1985);
J. Curl (2002a);
Halfpenny (1731, 1747, 1748, 1749, 1752, 1752a, 1752b, 1757, 1774, 1965, 1968, 1968a, 1968b, 1968c);
E. Harris (ed.) (1990)

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Halfpenny, William." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . 25 Apr. 2019 <>.

"Halfpenny, William." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . (April 25, 2019).

"Halfpenny, William." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Retrieved April 25, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.