bar1 / bär/ • n. 1. a long rod or rigid piece of wood, metal, or similar material, typically used as an obstruction, fastening, or weapon. ∎ an amount of food or another substance formed into a regular narrow block: a bar of chocolate gold bars. ∎ a band of color or light, esp. on a flat surface: bars of sunlight shafting through the broken windows. ∎ see crossbar. ∎ a sandbank or shoal at the mouth of a harbor, bay, or estuary. 2. a counter across which alcoholic drinks or refreshments are served. ∎ a room in a restaurant or hotel in which alcohol is served. ∎ an establishment where alcohol and sometimes other refreshments are served. ∎ a small store or booth serving refreshments or providing a service: a dairy bar. 3. a barrier or restriction to an action or advance: political differences are not necessarily a bar to a good relationship. 4. Mus. any of the sections, typically of equal time value, into which a musical composition is divided, shown on a score by vertical lines across the staff. 5. a particular court of law. ∎ ∎ any kind of tribunal: the bar of public opinion. 6. (the Bar) the legal profession. ∎ lawyers collectively. • v. (barred , bar·ring ) [tr.] 1. fasten (something, esp. a door or window) with a bar or bars: she bolts and bars the door. ∎ (usu. be barred) prevent or forbid the entrance or movement of: boulders barred her passage she was barred from a men-only dinner. ∎ prohibit (someone) from doing something: journalists had been barred from covering the elections. ∎ exclude (something) from consideration: nothing is barred in the crime novel. 2. (usu. be barred) mark (something) with bars or stripes: his face was barred with light. PHRASES: bar none with no exceptions: the greatest living American poet bar none. behind bars in prison.DERIVATIVES: barred / bärd/ adj. barred windows birds with barred breasts [in comb.] a five-barred gate. bar2 • n. a unit of pressure equivalent to 100,000 newtons per square meter or approx. one atmosphere.
BAR , town in Vinnitsa oblast, Ukraine. Bar passed to Russia at the second partition of Poland in 1793, and from 1796 to the 1917 Russian Revolution was a district capital in the province (government) of Podolia. The Bar community was one of the oldest in the Ukraine. Jews are first mentioned there in 1542. By an agreement concluded in 1556 with the citizens of Bar, the Jews were permitted to own buildings and had the same rights and duties as the other residents; they were permitted to visit other towns in the district for business purposes but were forbidden to provide lodging for Jewish visitors in the city. The agreement was formally ratified the same year by the Polish king Sigismund ii. The community grew during the second half of the 16th and the first half of the 17th century, and Jews from Bar engaged in trade in places as far away as Moldavia. According to a contemporary chronicler, the Bar community in 1648 numbered some 600 Jewish families, "men of wealth and standing." During the *Chmielnicki uprising in that year, many of the Jews in Bar were massacred. There was a further slaughter of the Jewish inhabitants by Cossacks and Tatars in 1651. There were 17 houses (out of 107) in Jewish ownership in Bar in 1565, 23 in 1570–71, and approximately 20 in 1661. In 1717, authorization to erect a synagogue in Bar was granted by the bishop. After 1793, under Russian rule, the community also developed. The Jewish population numbered 4,442 in 1847, 5,773 in 1897 (58% of the total), and 10,450 (46%) in 1910. Between 1910 and World War i, Jews opened factories based on agricultural products, such as sugar, linen, tobacco, and vodka. They owned most of the shops in town, and the only pharmacy and were the majority of artisans. Twenty Jews in Bar lost their lives during a pogrom in the summer of 1919. Religious and communal life came to an end with the establishment of the Soviet government. In the 1920s some 300 families lived from workmanship, 28 were clerks and workers, 150 heads of families worked in agriculture, some of them in a Jewish farm cooperative. The Jewish population totaled 5,270 in 1926 (55%) and 3,869 (total population – 9406) in 1939. In the 1930s 1,000 worked in various factories and 400 in industrial cooperatives; 53 families were members of a Jewish kolkhoz. The Germans occupied Bar on July 16, 1941. In December two ghettos were created, surrounded by barbed wire. On August 19, 1942, 3,000 Jews of the first ghetto were concentrated and kept for three days without food and water. In the nearby Jewish cemetery 1,742 Jews were killed, and the others, mostly young people, were taken to the abandoned ghetto, which turned into a working camp. On October 15, 1942, the 2,000 Jews of the second ghetto were murdered. Most of the working youngsters were killed one by one or died from hunger or diseases. Bar was liberated on March 25, 1944. In 1993 there were 199 Jews living there.
Bulletin of Rescue Committee of Jewish Agency for Palestine (May 1946), 6–8; M. Carp, Cartea Neagrǎ, 3 (1947), index; idem, Transnistria, Lebn, Leidn un Umkum (1950), 263.
1. Single piece of wood or metal, of any shape in section, placed horizontally, like the rail of a gate, to form an obstruction, or latch-bar dropped into a mortise behind a door or shutter to fasten it shut.
2. Horizontal timber ledge fixed to the back of a barred or ledged door to which the door-finish and hinges are fixed.
3. Gateway or gatehouse (such as the Micklegate, York), a barrier, or a toll-gate (toll-bar) on a highway.
4. Enclosure or barrier in a court of justice marking off the precinct of a judge's seat, at which prisoners are stationed for arraignment, trial, and sentence, or a particular court of law, or a barrier separating the seats of the benchers or readers from the rest of a hall, to which students were ‘called’ from the body of the hall (hence barristers ‘called to the bar’).
5. Barrier or counter over which drink (or food) is served in an inn, hotel, etc., or the room in which it is installed.
6. Pieces of timber forming the horizontal and vertical glazed divisions of a sash in a window, called bar of a sash, glazing-, sash-, or window-bar. The upright at the junction of two planes of a canted bay-window is called the angle-bar.
7. Flowing patterns in Gothic tracery, all the stonework having moulded sections the same as the mullions from which they rise, create bar-tracery, because the patterns are similar to those capable of being formed using wrought-iron bars.
1. (b) Unit of pressure approximately equal to one atmosphere (14 lb/in2), and precisely equal to 105Pa (105N/m2) in SI units. The pressure of the atmosphere at sea level on average is very approximately one bar, or about 1013 millibars (the bar commonly being divided into one thousand millibars, mb).
2. Geomorphologic term: (a) Low ridge of sand or shingle laid down by marine aggradation in shallow water adjacent to a coastline. There are several varieties: a bay bar joins the two flanks of a bay and may enclose a lagoon; an offshore or barrier bar runs parallel to a coastline and up to 40 km distant. (b) Rocky obstruction across a glaciated valley. See glacial stairway. (c) Lobate river bedform, typically constructed of gravel, often regularly spaced, and forming a riffle or shallow section. (d) Point bar: a low crescentic shoal on the convex side (inside) of a river bend, consisting of material that has been eroded from an outside bend, either opposite or upstream. Point-bar deposits consist of relatively coarse materials, often showing an upstream dip.
1. A unit of pressure approximately equal to one atmosphere (14 lb/in2 in CGS units), and precisely equal to 105 Pa (105 N/m2) in SI units. The pressure of the atmosphere at sea level on average is very approximately one bar, or about 1013 millibars (the bar commonly being divided into one thousand millibars, mb).
2. (a)A low ridge of sand or shingle laid down by marine aggradation in shallow water adjacent to a coastline. There are several varieties: a bay bar joins the two flanks of a bay and may enclose a lagoon; an offshore or barrier bar runs parallel to a coastline and up to 40 km distant.(b)A rocky obstruction across a glaciated valley. See glacial stairway.(c)A lobate river bed-form, typically constructed of gravel, often regularly spaced, and forming a riffle or shallow section.(d)Point bar: a low crescentic shoal on the convex side (inside) of a river bend, consisting of material that has been eroded from an outside bend, either opposite or upstream. Point-bar deposits consist of relatively coarse materials, often showing an upstream dip.
The bar denotes the profession of barrister; in British usage, barristers collectively.