Skip to main content

Bar Hebraeus° (or Bar ʿEbhraya or Ibn al- ʿIbri), Joha-Nan

BAR HEBRAEUS° (or Bar ʿEbhraya or Ibn al- ʿIbri), JOHA-NAN

BAR HEBRAEUS° (or Bar ʿEbhraya or Ibn al- ʿIbri ), JOHA-NAN (later: Gregorius or Abu al Faraj ; 1226–1286), the last of the important writers in Syriac. He was the son of an apostate Jewish physician, Aaron (hence the appellation Son of the Hebrew), and knew Hebrew. Born in Malaṭīya (in Asia Minor) he went with his father to Antioch, where he became a monk. He also pursued secular studies, at first under his father's tutelage and later with a Nestorian scholar in Tripoli (Syria). In 1246 he was ordained Jacobite (Monophysite) bishop of Gubos (near Mulafryn) and assumed the name Gregorius. In 1252 he was appointed Maphriyan (archbishop) of Mesopotamia and Persia. Bar Hebraeus traveled widely, supervising the congregations of his church. He died at Maghāra in Azerbaijan.

Bar Hebraeus was a prolific writer. His commentary Oẓar Razei ("Treasury of Secret Wisdom") on the Old and New Testaments, reveals the influence of traditional Jewish exegesis. In addition to theological works such as Ḥokhmat Ḥokhmeta, which contains a systematic exposition of Aristotle's teaching, he also wrote on Syriac grammar and composed a Syriac Chronicle, a history of the world from creation to his own time, in two parts: ecclesiastical history and secular history. It was translated into English by E.A.W. Budge in 1932, and became widely known. Bar Hebraeus also wrote many poems and compiled a collection of entertaining stories (English translation, Oriental Wit and Wisdom, or the Laughable Stories, 1889). In addition, he translated Arabic works into Syriac (including the philosophical work of *Avicenna, Kitāb al-Ishārāt), and also wrote works in Arabic, including an abridgment of the secular portion of his Chronicle with some revisions and addenda, and an epitome of the large work of al-Ghāfikī on medications (part published in the original with an English translation, with a commentary by M. Meyerhof and G.P. Sohby, 1932).

bibliography:

A. Baumstark, Geschichte der syrischen Literatur (1922), 312–20; G. Graf, Geschichte der christlichen arabischen Literatur, 2 (1947), 272–81; Brockelmann, Arab Lit, 1 (1898), 349–50, 591; W. Wright, Short History of Syriac Literature (1894), 265–81.

[Eliyahu Ashtor]

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Bar Hebraeus° (or Bar ʿEbhraya or Ibn al- ʿIbri), Joha-Nan." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Jul. 2019 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Bar Hebraeus° (or Bar ʿEbhraya or Ibn al- ʿIbri), Joha-Nan." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 21, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bar-hebraeusdeg-or-bar-ebhraya-or-ibn-al-ibri-joha-nan

"Bar Hebraeus° (or Bar ʿEbhraya or Ibn al- ʿIbri), Joha-Nan." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Retrieved July 21, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bar-hebraeusdeg-or-bar-ebhraya-or-ibn-al-ibri-joha-nan

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.