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littoral fringe

littoral fringe The uppermost reaches of the littoral zone of marine ecosystems. On rocky shores it is the main area for Littorina species (periwinkles), and the black lichen, Verrucaria, and is distinguished from the lower, eulittoral zone by the absence of barnacles (e.g. Balanus species and Chthamalus species). On sandy shores crabs, beach amphipods, and some land insects are characteristic.

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littoral fringe

littoral fringe The uppermost reaches of the littoral zone of marine ecosystems. On rocky shores it is the main area for Littorina species (periwinkles), and the black lichen, Verrucaria, and is distinguished from the lower, eulittoral zone by the absence of barnacles (e.g. Balanus species and Chthamalus species). On sandy shores crabs, beach amphipods, and some land insects are characteristic.

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"littoral fringe." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 15 Aug. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"littoral fringe." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 15, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/littoral-fringe-0

"littoral fringe." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Retrieved August 15, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/littoral-fringe-0

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Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

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The Chicago Manual of Style

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American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
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