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Meteorology

METEOROLOGY

METEOROLOGY, the study of the atmosphere and, especially, of weather.

Colonial and Early America

Early settlers in the New World found the climate harsher and the storms more violent than in the Old World. Many colonial Americans kept weather journals but, compared to European standards, few had adequate instruments. The first prolonged instrumental meteorological observations, initiated by Dr. John Lining in Charleston in 1738, were related to his medical concerns.

In 1750 Benjamin Franklin hypothesized that grounded metal rods would protect buildings from lightning damage. Two years later he conducted his famous kite experiment. Franklin's investigations demonstrated that lightning is an electrical discharge and that most flashes originate in clouds. Franklin coined much of the vocabulary of modern electricity, including such terms as positive and negative charge. He was able to simulate many types of lightning damage and demonstrated that lightning rods would protect most structures from such effects. Franklin also suggested that the aurora borealis is of electrical origin and closely associated with terrestrial magnetism, that storms are progressive wind systems, and, on a practical note, that the government should set up an office to administer aid to citizens whose crops or property had been destroyed by hurricanes, tornadoes, blights, or pestilence. During several Atlantic crossings between 1746 and 1775, Franklin made observations of the warm current called the Gulf Stream and was able to chart its boundaries fairly accurately.

Thomas Jefferson and the Reverend James Madison made the first simultaneous meteorological measurements in America in 1778. Jefferson also exchanged observations regularly with his other numerous correspondents. He was a strong advocate for a national meteorological system, and encouraged the federal government to supply observers in each county of each state with accurate instruments. Although these plans did not materialize in his lifetime, within several decades voluntary observing systems were replaced by government-run meteorological services around the world.

The Nineteenth Century

Early in the nineteenth century the Army Medical Department, the General Land Office, and the academies of the State of New York established large-scale climatological observing programs. The information was used in a variety of ways: physicians studied the relationship between weather and health, farmers and settlers used the temperature and rainfall statistics, and educators brought meteorological observations into the classroom.

Between 1834 and 1859 the "American storm controversy" stimulated a meteorological crusade that transformed theory and practice. William Redfield, James Pollard Espy, and Robert Hare argued over the nature and causes of storms and the proper way to investigate them. Redfield focused on hurricanes as circular whirlwinds; Espy on the release of latent "caloric" in updrafts; and Hare on the role of electricity in storms. Espy also prepared the first long series of daily-analyzed weather charts and was the first official government meteorologist of the United States. While it came to no clear intellectual resolution, the controversy of the 1830s and 1840s stimulated the development of observational projects at the American Philosophical Society, Franklin Institute, and Smithsonian Institution. In the 1840s Matthew Fontaine Maury, superintendent of the U.S. Navy's Depot of Charts and Instruments prepared "pilot charts" of ocean winds and currents. The charts, compiled from navy logbooks and reports from ship captains, included sailing directions for mariners on all the world's oceans.

The Smithsonian meteorological project under the direction of Joseph Henry provided a uniform set of procedures and some standardized instruments to observers across the continent. Up to 600 volunteer observers filed reports monthly. In 1849 Henry began compiling weather reports collected from telegraph operators and displayed the results on a large map of the nation. In addition the Smithsonian established cooperative observing programs with the Navy Department, the states of New York and Massachusetts, the Canadian Government, the Coast Survey, the Army Engineers, the Patent Office, and the Department of Agriculture. The Smithsonian sponsored original research on storms, climatic change, and phenology (the study of recurring natural phenomena, especially in relation to climatic conditions); it also published and distributed meteorological reports, maps, and translations. James Coffin mapped the winds of the Northern Hemisphere and the winds of the globe using data collected through Smithsonian exchanges. William Ferrel used this information to develop his theory of the general circulation of the atmosphere. Elias Loomis improved weather-plotting methods and developed synoptic charts depicting winds, precipitation, isotherms, and lines of minimum pressure.

In 1870 Congress provided funds for a national weather service. Assigned to the Signal Service Corps within the War Department, the new service was called the Division of Telegrams and Reports for the Benefit of Commerce. General Albert J. Myer served as the first director of the service, which provided daily reports of current conditions and "probabilities" for the next day's weather. It employed civilian scientists Increase A. Lapham and Cleveland Abbe and more than 500 college-educated observer-sergeants. Its budget increased one hundredfold from 1869 to 1875. The Monthly Weather Review, begun in 1872, was still published in the early 2000s. Beginning in 1875, in cooperation with the weather services of other nations, the weather service issued a Bulletin of International Simultaneous Observations, which contained worldwide synoptic charts and weather observations. In 1891 the U.S. Weather Bureau moved to the Department of Agriculture.

The Twentieth Century

During World War I the bureau instituted the daily launching of upper-air sounding balloons, applied twoway radio communication to meteorological purposes, and developed marine and aviation weather services. The "disciplinary" period in meteorology began rather late compared with parallel developments in other sciences. University and graduate education, well-defined career paths, and specialized societies and journals began in the second decade of the twentieth century. The American Meteorological Society and the American Geophysical Union were both established in 1919.

In the 1930s a number of visiting scientists from Scandinavia, including Vilhelm Bjerknes, Jacob Bjerknes, C. G. Rossby, and Sverre Petterssen brought the new Bergen School methods of air-mass and frontal analysis to the United States. In 1940, to serve the growing needs of aviation, the Weather Bureau was transferred to the Department of Commerce. By this time the use of Bergen School methods and the acquisition of upper-air data by the use of balloon-borne radio-meteorographs had become routine.

During World War II meteorologists instituted crash education programs to train weather officers. Forecasters were needed for bombing raids, naval task forces, and other special operations. Many university departments of meteorology were established at this time. Testing and use of nuclear explosives also raised new issues for meteorologists. Scientists learned that radioactive fallout spreads in an ominous plume downwind and circles the globe at high altitudes in the jet stream. Atmospheric scientists played leading roles in promoting the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, which banned atmospheric nuclear testing. That year, the original Clean Air Act was passed. It was substantially revised in 1970 and in 1990.

Following the war, surplus radar equipment and airplanes were employed in storm studies. At the Research Laboratory of the General Electric Company, Irving Langmuir, a Nobel Prize–winning chemist, and his associates Vincent Schaefer and Bernard Vonnegut experimented with weather modification using dry ice, silver iodide, and other cloud-seeding agents. Although these techniques did not result in their originally intended goal—large-scale weather control—they did provide impetus to the new field of cloud physics. Meanwhile, at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, John von Neumann began experiments using digital computers to model and predict the weather. With the support of the weather bureau and the military weather services, operational numerical weather prediction became a reality by the mid-1950s. Viewing the earth from space had also become a reality. In 1947 cloud formations were photographed from high altitude using a V2 rocket. Explorer 6 took the first photograph of the earth from space in 1959, while in the same year Explorer 7 measured the radiation budget of the earth with a pair of infrared radiometers with spin-scan stabilization designed and built by Verner Suomi. Tiros 1 (Tele-vision Infra-Red Observation Satellite), the world's first all-weather satellite, was launched into polar orbit by NASA in 1960.

Radio weather forecasts date to 1923, when E. B. Rideout began broadcasting in Boston. Televised weathercasts were first aired on the Weather Bureau Dumont Network in 1947 by James M. "Jimmie" Fidler. In 1982 the Weather Channel started round-the-clock cable operations. In 1965 the Weather Bureau became part of the Environmental Science Services Administration (ESSA); it was renamed the National Weather Service in 1970 as part of the new National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

Conclusion

New interdisciplinary problems, approaches, and techniques characterize the modern subdisciplines of the atmospheric sciences. Specialties in cloud physics, atmospheric chemistry, satellite meteorology, and climate dynamics have developed along with more traditional programs in weather analysis and prediction. The U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research and many new departments of atmospheric science date from the 1960s. Fundamental contributions have been made by Edward Lorenz on the chaotic behavior of the atmosphere, by F. Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina on potential damage to stratospheric ozone by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) compounds, and by Charles David Keeling on background measurements of carbon dioxide, to name but a few.

Meteorology has advanced through theoretical understanding and through new technologies such as aviation, computers, and satellites, which have enhanced data collection and observation of the weather. Economic and social aspects of meteorology now include practical fore-casting, severe weather warnings, and governmental and diplomatic initiatives regarding the health and future of the planet.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bates, Charles C., and John F. Fuller. America's Weather Warriors, 1814–1985. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1986.

Fleming, James Rodger. Meteorology in America, 1800–1870. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990.

Fleming, James Rodger, ed. Historical Essays on Meteorology, 1919–1995. Boston: American Meteorological Society, 1996.

Nebeker, Frederik. Calculating the Weather: Meteorology in the Twentieth Century. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, 1995.

Whitnah, Donald R. A History of the United States Weather Bureau. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1961.

James RpdgerFleming

MalcolmRigby

See alsoWeather Satellites ; Weather Service, National .

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Meteorology

Meteorology

Meteorology, the study of the atmosphere, is a related field of geology used by forensic investigators, lawyers, and prosecutors to look for specific information to be used in court when climate conditions are of relevance in explaining an event. The term meteorology originates from the Greek, meteoros, for airborne, and logos, for discourse or study.

Meteorologists may be requested by courts or by companies to give information necessary for reconstructing ship or airplane accidents, or on wind chills affecting outdoor workers, or to present a detailed weather reconstruction for a given area on a particular day. Meteorologists are sometimes requested to explain events associated with air pollution and airborne spread of dangerous substances, or to clarify whether a given meteorological event is abnormal or expected in a certain region and period of the year.

Forensic meteorologists may also help in crime investigations. For instance, they can calculate the wind and ocean currents in a particular body of water and thus indicate the most probable area where a disabled boat or even a corpse could be washed onshore.

Mankind has been intrigued since antiquity by meteorological phenomena such as sudden climate changes, the cycle of seasons, and the origins of winds, lightning bolts, storms, and tides. However, meteorology is a relatively young science whose importance and impact on the economic activities and military strategic planning became increasingly evident in the industrial era. Agricultural communities have regulated their activities for thousands of years through the empirical observation of local climatologic cycles. But weather prediction was a very imprecise and challenging task until the end of World War II (19391945). The date for the invasion of Normandy by the Allied forces, the famous D day, had to be changed several times because of such limitations. The field was able to remarkably advance after satellites, Doppler radar, and computer technologies allowed the development of more efficient research methods for the understanding and prediction of meteorological phenomena.

Climate variations are determined by the interchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial topography, with noticeable differences in temperature, moisture, and pressure between two localities of a given area due to such features. A large body of water, or the presence or absence of forests and mountains are topographic factors responsible for climate variations, known as local effects. For instance, a mountain chain running parallel to a coastal seashore functions as a dividing barrier, with different local effects on opposite sides of the mountains. Big cities also function as topographic factors, with their industrial and automotive emissions of carbon dioxide increasing the local temperature and changing the patterns of rain and snow precipitation compared with the surrounding countryside. Differences in air temperatures over the sea and coastal lands give rise to breezes and winds that circulate between the two surfaces. Breezes usually start blowing from the sea to the land in the morning, increasing speed until mid afternoon, and then reversing direction in late afternoon and during the night. The main reason for this event is that the air over land heats faster than over the ocean. Water absorbs a great amount of solar radiation and slows down the heating process of the air, whereas land surfaces reflect most of the radiation to the atmosphere. As air temperature rises, atmospheric pressure lowers over the land, allowing the air to move from the sea to land. At night, however, land surfaces loose heat faster than water, causing the wind direction to reverse.

The presence of a maritime current of cold or warm water flowing along a coastline also will interfere with wind patterns as well as the presence of a mountain chain nearby the coastline. Mountains create their own thermal circulations, even when atmospheric pressures are weak, because of the heating variations among different altitude gradients. Air over the valleys heats faster than over the mountain slopes, creating the anabatic air currents that move toward the mountaintop. At evening, the current reverses, and the katabatic winds move down from the mountaintops to the valleys. Anabatic winds are more frequent and stronger in summer and in tropical regions, whereas katabatic winds are more frequent in wintertime and in temperate latitudes. Mountain chains along the coastal line have anabatic, or upwardly moving, winds increased by the breeze blowing from the ocean. They also act as a partial barrier against sea wind propagation toward inland, and promote the formation of cumulus clouds on mountaintops because air is gradually cooled and water vapor condenses as it ascends. Late afternoon or evening precipitation is common in tropical coastlines with these topographic features.

Winds blowing perpendicular to mountain slopes create phenomena known as convergence, by forcing the air around the slopes to move upward, being continuously deflected by the wind as they rise. When the air reaches the top, a strong current is released and sinks on the other side, except when a temperature inversion is present near the mountain summits. Temperature inversion refers to a descending air mass that is warmer than the ascending air. When the ascending air encounters the warmer, less-dense air, it loses pressure and a wavelike turbulence pattern is formed, known as lee waves or orographic waves, which are felt as a "bumpy road" when airplanes fly through them. When a large front of cool high-pressure air descends from higher altitudes and encounters a large warm low-pressure front, complex interactions take place. These may lead to the onset of tropical storms, gusty winds, thunderstorms, or tornadoes, depending on the particular conditions of the resulting super cell.

see also Accident investigations at sea; Accident reconstruction; Aircraft accident investigations; Careers in forensic science; Crime scene reconstruction; Geology; Satellites, non-governmental high resolution.

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Meteorology

Meteorology

Meteorology is a science that studies the processes and phenomena of the atmosphere. Accordingly, a person who studies the atmosphere is called a meteorologist. Meteorology consists of many areas: physical meteorology, dealing with physical aspects of the atmosphere such as rain or cloud formation, or rainbows and mirages; synoptic meteorology, the analysis and forecast of large-scale weather systems; dynamic meteorology, which is based on the laws of theoretical physics ; climatology, the study of the climate of an area ; aviation meteorology, researching weather information for aviation; atmospheric chemistry , examining the chemical composition and processes in the atmosphere; atmospheric optics, analyzing the optical phenomena of the atmosphere such as halos or rainbows; or agricultural meteorology, studying the relationship between weather and vegetation. While meteorology usually refers to the study of the earth's atmosphere, atmospheric science includes the study of the atmospheres of all the planets in the solar system .

Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle (384322 b.c..) is considered the father of meteorology, because he was the first one to use the word meteorology in his book Meteorologica around 340 b.c., summarizing the knowledge of that time about atmospheric phenomena. He speculatively wrote about clouds, rain, snow, wind , and climatic changes, and although many of his findings later proved to be incorrect, many of them were insightful. The title of the book refers to all the things being in the sky or falling from there, which at that time was called a meteor.

Although systematic weather data recording began about the fourteenth century, the lack of weather measuring instruments made only some visual observations possible at that time. The real scientific study of atmospheric phenomena started later with the invention of devices to measure weather data: the thermometer in about 1600 for measuring temperature , the barometer for measuring atmospheric pressure in 1643, the anemometer for measuring wind speed in 1667, and the hair hygrometer for measuring humidity in 1780. In 1802, the first cloud classification system was formulated, and in 1805, a wind scale was first introduced. These measuring instruments and new ideas made possible gathering of actual data from the atmosphere giving the basis for scientific theories for properties of the atmosphere (pressure, temperature, humidity, etc.) and its governing physical laws.

In the early 1840s, the first weather forecasting services started with the invention of the telegraph transporting meteorological information. At that time, meteorology was still in the descriptive phase, still on an empirical basis with little scientific theories and calculations involved, although weather maps could be drawn, and storm systems and surface wind patterns were being recognized.

Meteorology became more scientific only around World War One, when Norwegian physicist Vilhelm Bjerknes (18621951) introduced a modern meteorological theory stating that weather patterns in the temperate middle latitudes are the results of the interaction between warm and cold air masses. His description of atmospheric phenomena and fore-casting techniques were based on the laws of physics, exploring the science of dynamic meteorology, assuming that knowing about the atmospheric conditions now, and knowing the governing physical laws for its movements, predictions for the future are possible.

By the 1940s, upper-level measurements of pressure, temperature, wind, and humidity clarified more about the vertical properties of the atmosphere. In 1946, the process of cloud seeding was invented which made possible some weather modification experiments. In the 1950s, radar became important for detecting precipitation of a remote area. Also in the 1950s, with the invention of the computer, weather forecasting became not only quicker but also more reliable, because the computers could solve the mathematical equations of the atmospheric models much faster than manually before. In 1960, the first meteorological satellite was launched to provide 24-hour monitoring of weather events worldwide.

These satellites now give three-dimensional data to high-speed computers for faster and more precise weather predictions. These days the computers are capable of plotting the observation data, and solving huge models not only for short-time weather forecasting, but also climatic models on time scales of centuries, for climate change studies. Meteorology has come a long way since Aristotle. Even so, the computers still have their capacity limits, the models are still with many uncertainties, and the effects of the atmosphere on our complex society and environment can be serious. Many complicated issues remain at the forefront of meteorologyincluding air pollution, global warming , El Niño events, climate change, the ozone hole, acid rainmaking meteorology today a scientific area still riddled with many challenges and unanswered questions.

See also Air masses and fronts; Atmospheric circulation; Atmospheric composition and structure; Atmospheric inversion layers; Atmospheric lapse rate; Atmospheric pollution; Clouds and cloud types; El Niño and La Niña phenomena; Greenhouse gases and greenhouse effect; Isobars; Scientific data management in Earth Sciences; Weather balloon; Weather forecasting methods; Weather radar; Weather satellite; Weathering and weathering series; Wind chill; Wind shear

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meteorology

meteorology, branch of science that deals with the atmosphere of a planet, particularly that of the earth, the most important application of which is the analysis and prediction of weather. Individual studies within meteorology include aeronomy, the study of the physics of the upper atmosphere; aerology, the study of free air not adjacent to the earth's surface; applied meteorology, the application of weather data for specific practical problems; dynamic meteorology, the study of atmospheric motions (which also includes the meteorology of other planets and satellites in the solar system); and physical meteorology, which focuses on the physical properties of the atmosphere.

Development of Meteorology

Aristotle's Meteorologica (c.340 BC) is the oldest comprehensive treatise on meteorological subjects. Although most of the discussion is inaccurate in the light of modern understanding, Aristotle's work was respected as the authority in meteorology for some 2,000 years. In addition to further commentary on the Meteorologica, this period also saw attempts to forecast the weather according to astrological events, using techniques introduced by Ptolemy.

As speculation gave way to experimentation following the scientific revolution, advances in the physical sciences made contributions to meteorology, most notably through the invention of instruments for measuring atmospheric conditions, e.g., Leonardo da Vinci's wind vane (1500), Galileo's thermometer (c.1593), and Torricelli's mercury barometer (1643). Further developments included Halley's account of the trade winds and monsoons (1686) and Ferrel's theory of the general circulation of the atmosphere (1856). The invention of the telegraph made possible the rapid collection of nearly simultaneous weather observations for large continental and marine regions, thus providing a view of the large-scale pressure and circulation patterns that determine the weather.

Modern Meteorological Science and Technology

In 1917 the Norwegian physicist Vilhelm Bjerknes introduced his theory describing the formation of wave cyclones on the polar front and laid the foundation for modern methods of weather forecasting. In 1922, L. F. Richardson perceived the basis for the mathematical prediction of the atmospheric circulation, and in 1938 C. G. Rossby made additional mathematical contributions. Application of this treatment by Richardson and Rossby awaited the introduction of high-speed electronic computers, which were first used for weather forecasting in the late 1940s by J. G. Charney and John Von Neumann. By 1955 computer forecasts were being made operationally and computer forecasting models have been improved steadily since then.

Since 1959 meteorological satellites have provided an overview of the atmosphere's cloud patterns, serving among other things as an early warning and detection system for hurricanes, typhoons, and tropical cyclones. Infrared sensors mounted on meteorological satellites now provide observations of the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere, and research efforts continue the development of computer forecasting models capable of utilizing these and other satellite data to improve current weather-predicting skills. Meteorological studies have been aided by the use of large computers for atmospheric modeling. Information gathered by weather balloons and earth-orbiting satellites have been used in computer models to predict long-term and short-term meteorological events such as changes in ozone levels and daily movements of storms, respectively.

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the major governmental responsibility in the United States for monitoring and forecasting the weather and conducting meteorological research. The Air Force Weather Agency and the Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center have similar responsibilities within the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy, respectively; space applications to meteorology are researched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as well as by the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, which is under the auspices of NOAA. In addition to a host of universities conducting meteorological research, there is the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is operated by an affiliation of universities and sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation. The World Weather Watch, organized by the World Meteorological Organization, collects and disseminates information on a global basis. A number of private companies also engage in operational and research meteorological activities.

Bibliography

See C. D. Ahrens, Meteorology Today (1988); J. M. Moran, Meteorology (1991).

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meteorology

me·te·or·ol·o·gy / ˌmētēəˈräləjē/ • n. the branch of science concerned with the processes and phenomena of the atmosphere, esp. as a means of forecasting the weather. ∎  the climate and weather of a region. DERIVATIVES: me·te·or·o·log·i·cal / -rəˈläjikəl/ adj. me·te·or·o·log·i·cal·ly / -rəˈläjik(ə)lē/ adv. me·te·or·ol·o·gist / -rəˈläjist/ n.

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meteorology

meteorology Study of weather conditions, a branch of climatology. Meteorologists study and analyse data from a network of weather ships, aircraft and satellites in order to compile maps showing the state of the high- and low-pressure regions in the Earth's atmosphere. They also anticipate changes in the distribution of the regions and forecast the future weather.

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meteorology

meteorology •haji • algae • Angie •argy-bargy, Panaji •edgy, sedgy, solfeggi, veggie, wedgie •cagey, stagy •mangy, rangy •Fiji, gee-gee, squeegee •Murrumbidgee, ridgy, squidgy •dingy, fringy, mingy, stingy, whingy •cabbagy • prodigy • effigy • villagey •porridgy • strategy • cottagey •dodgy, podgy, splodgy, stodgy •pedagogy •Georgie, orgy •ogee • Fuji •bhaji, budgie, pudgy, sludgy, smudgy •bulgy •bungee, grungy, gungy, scungy, spongy •allergy, analogy, genealogy, hypallage, metallurgy, mineralogy, tetralogy •elegy •antilogy, trilogy •aetiology (US etiology), amphibology, anthology, anthropology, apology, archaeology (US archeology), astrology, biology, campanology, cardiology, chronology, climatology, cosmology, craniology, criminology, dermatology, ecology, embryology, entomology, epidemiology, etymology, geology, gynaecology (US gynecology), haematology (US hematology), hagiology, horology, hydrology, iconology, ideology, immunology, iridology, kidology, meteorology, methodology, musicology, mythology, necrology, neurology, numerology, oncology, ontology, ophthalmology, ornithology, parasitology, pathology, pharmacology, phraseology, phrenology, physiology, psychology, radiology, reflexology, scatology, Scientology, seismology, semiology, sociology, symbology, tautology, technology, terminology, theology, topology, toxicology, urology, zoology • eulogy • energy • synergy • apogee • liturgy • lethargy •burgee, clergy •zymurgy • dramaturgy

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Meteorology

Meteorology

3132 ■ AMERICAN GEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE

Attn: Minority Participation Program
4220 King Street
Alexandria, VA 22302-1502
Tel: (703)379-2480
Fax: (703)379-7563
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.agiweb.org/mpp/index.html
To provide financial assistance to underrepresented minority undergraduate and graduate students interested in working on a degree in the geosciences.
Title of Award: Minority Geoscience Student Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Geology; Hydrology; Meteorology; Oceanography Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 19 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: Stipends range from $500 to $3,000 per year. Duration: 1 academic year; renewable if the recipient maintains satisfactory performance.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members of ethnic minority groups underrepresented in the geosciences (Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Eskimos, Hawaiians, and Samoans). U.S. citizenship or permanent resident status is required. Applicants must be full-time students enrolled in an accredited institution working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in the geosciences, including geology, geophysics, hydrology, meteorology, physical oceanography, planetary geology, and earth science education; students in other natural sciences, mathematics, or engineering are not eligible. Selection is based on a 250-word essay on career goals and why the applicant has chosen a geoscience as a major, work experience, recommendations, honors and awards, extracurricular activities, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this program is provided by ExxonMobil Corporation, ConocoPhillips, ChevronTexaco Corporation, Marathon Corporation, and the Seismological Society of America.

3133 ■ AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY

Attn: Fellowship/Scholarship Program
45 Beacon Street
Boston, MA 02108-3693
Tel: (617)227-2426
Fax: (617)742-8718
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ametsoc.org/amsstudentinfo/scholfeldocs/index.html
To provide financial assistance to undergraduates majoring in meteorology or an aspect of atmospheric sciences.
Title of Award: AMS Undergraduate Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Atmospheric science; Hydrology; Meteorology; Oceanography Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 11 each year. Funds Available: Stipends range from $700 to $5,000 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time students entering their final year of undergraduate study and majoring in meteorology or an aspect of the atmospheric or related oceanic and hydrologic sciences. Applicants must intend to make atmospheric or related sciences their career. They must be U.S. citizens or permanent residents enrolled at a U.S. institution and have a cumulative GPA of 3.25 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit 200-word essays on 1) their most important achievements that qualify them for this scholarship, and 2) their career goals in the atmospheric or related oceanic or hydrologic fields. Selection is based on academic excellence and achievement; financial need is not considered. The sponsor specifically encourages applications from women, minorities, and students with disabilities who are traditionally underrepresented in the atmospheric and related oceanic sciences. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program includes the following named scholarships: the Howard H. Hanks, Jr. Scholarship in Meteorology ($700), the AMS 75th Anniversary Endowed Scholarship ($2,000), the Om and Saraswati (Sara) Bahethi Scholarship ($2,000), the Howard T. Orville Endowed Scholarship in Meteorology ($5,000), the George S. Benton Scholarship ($3,500), the Carl W. Kreitzberg Endowed Scholarship ($2,000), the Dr. Pedro Grau Undergraduate Scholarship ($2,500), the Guillermo Salazar Rodriguez Scholarship ($2,500), the John R. Hope Endowed Scholarship in Atmospheric Science ($2,500), the Richard and Helen Hagemeyer Scholarship ($3,000), and the Werner A. Baum Endowed Scholarship ($5,000). Requests for an application must be accompanied by a self-addressed stamped envelope.

3134 ■ AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY

Attn: Fellowship/Scholarship Program
45 Beacon Street
Boston, MA 02108-3693
Tel: (617)227-2426
Fax: (617)742-8718
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ametsoc.org/amsstudentinfo/scholfeldocs/index.html
To provide financial assistance to undergraduates majoring in meteorology or an aspect of atmospheric sciences with an interest in applied meteorology.
Title of Award: Loren W. Crow Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Atmospheric science; Hydrology; Meteorology; Oceanography Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time students entering their final year of undergraduate study and majoring in meteorology or an aspect of the atmospheric or related oceanic and hydrologic sciences. Applicants must intend to make atmospheric or related sciences their career, with preference for students who have demonstrated a strong interest in applied meteorology. They must be U.S. citizens or permanent residents enrolled at a U.S. institution and have a cumulative GPA of 3.25 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit 200-word essays on 1) their most important achievements that qualify them for this scholarship, and 2) their career goals in the atmospheric or related oceanic or hydrologic fields. Selection is based on academic excellence and achievement; financial need is not considered. The sponsor specifically encourages applications from women, minorities, and students with disabilities who are traditionally underrepresented in the atmospheric and related oceanic sciences. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Requests for an application must be accompanied by a self-addressed stamped envelope.

3135 ■ AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY

Attn: Fellowship/Scholarship Program
45 Beacon Street
Boston, MA 02108-3693
Tel: (617)227-2426
Fax: (617)742-8718
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ametsoc.org/amsstudentinfo/scholfeldocs/index.html
To provide financial assistance to undergraduates majoring in meteorology or an aspect of atmospheric sciences with an interest in statistical meteorology.
Title of Award: Bob Glahn Scholarship in Statistical Meteorology Area, Field, or Subject: Atmospheric science; Hydrology; Meteorology; Oceanography; Statistics Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,500 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time students entering their final year of undergraduate study and majoring in meteorology or an aspect of the atmospheric or related oceanic and hydrologic sciences. Applicants must intend to make atmospheric or related sciences their career, with preference for students who have demonstrated a strong interest in statistical meteorology. They must be U.S. citizens or permanent residents enrolled at a U.S. institution and have a cumulative GPA of 3.25 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit 200-word essays on 1) their most important achievements that qualify them for this scholarship, and 2) their career goals in the atmospheric or related oceanic or hydrologic fields. Selection is based on academic excellence and achievement; financial need is not considered. The sponsor specifically encourages applications from women, minorities, and students with disabilities who are traditionally underrepresented in the atmospheric and related oceanic sciences. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Requests for an application must be accompanied by a self-addressed stamped envelope.

3136 ■ AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY

Attn: Fellowship/Scholarship Program
45 Beacon Street
Boston, MA 02108-3693
Tel: (617)227-2426
Fax: (617)742-8718
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ametsoc.org/amsstudentinfo/scholfeldocs/index.html
To provide financial assistance to underrepresented minority students entering college and planning to major in meteorology or an aspect of atmospheric sciences.
Title of Award: Industry Minority Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Atmospheric science; Hydrology; Meteorology; Oceanography Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 10 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is $3,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for the second year of college study.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members of minority groups traditionally underrepresented in the sciences (Hispanics, Native Americans, and Black/African Americans) who are entering their freshman year at a college or university and planning to work on a degree in the atmospheric or related oceanic and hydrologic sciences. Applicants must submit an official high school transcript showing grades from the past 3 years, a letter of recommendation from a high school teacher or guidance counselor, a copy of scores from an SAT or similar national entrance exam, and a 500-word essay on how they would use their college education in atmospheric sciences (or a closely-related field) to make their community a better place in which to live. Selection is based on the essay and academic performance in high school. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program is funded by grants from industry and by donations to the American Meteorological Society (AMS) 21st Century Campaign. Requests for an application must be accompanied by a self-addressed stamped envelope.

3137 ■ AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY

Attn: Fellowship/Scholarship Program
45 Beacon Street
Boston, MA 02108-3693
Tel: (617)227-2426
Fax: (617)742-8718
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ametsoc.org/amsstudentinfo/scholfeldocs/index.html
To provide financial assistance to undergraduates majoring in meteorology or an aspect of atmospheric sciences with an interest in weather forecasting.
Title of Award: Ethan and Allan Murphy Endowed Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Atmospheric science; Hydrology; Meteorology; Oceanography Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time students entering their final year of undergraduate study and majoring in meteorology or an aspect of the atmospheric or related oceanic and hydrologic sciences. Applicants must intend to make atmospheric or related sciences their career and be able to demonstrate, through curricular or extracurricular activities, an interest in weather forecasting or in the value and utilization of forecasts. They must be U.S. citizens or permanent residents enrolled at a U.S. institution and have a cumulative GPA of 3.25 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit 200-word essays on 1) their most important achievements that qualify them for this scholarship, and 2) their career goals in the atmospheric or related oceanic or hydrologic fields. Selection is based on academic excellence and achievement; financial need is not considered. The sponsor specifically encourages applications from women, minorities, and students with disabilities who are traditionally underrepresented in the atmospheric and related oceanic sciences. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Requests for an application must be accompanied by a self-addressed stamped envelope.

3138 ■ AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY

Attn: Fellowship/Scholarship Program
45 Beacon Street
Boston, MA 02108-3693
Tel: (617)227-2426
Fax: (617)742-8718
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ametsoc.org/amsstudentinfo/scholfeldocs/index.html
To provide financial assistance to students majoring in meteorology or some aspect of atmospheric sciences who demonstrate financial need.
Title of Award: Mark J. Schroeder Endowed Scholarship in Meteorology Area, Field, or Subject: Atmospheric science; Hydrology; Meteorology; Oceanography Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $5,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time students entering their final year of undergraduate study and majoring in meteorology or an aspect of the atmospheric or related oceanic and hydrologic sciences. Applicants must intend to make atmospheric or related sciences their career. They must be U.S. citizens or permanent residents enrolled at a U.S. institution and have a cumulative GPA of 3.25 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit 200-word essays on 1) their most important achievements that qualify them for this scholarship, and 2) their career goals in the atmospheric or related oceanic or hydrologic fields. Selection is based on academic excellence and achievement and financial need. The sponsor specifically encourages applications from women, minorities, and students with disabilities who are traditionally underrepresented in the atmospheric and related oceanic sciences. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This scholarship was established in 1995. Requests for an application must be accompanied by a self-addressed stamped envelope.

3139 ■ ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN GEOSCIENTISTS

Attn: AWG Foundation
P.O. Box 30645
Lincoln, NE 68503-0645
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.awg.org/eas/minority.html
To provide financial assistance to minority women who are interested in working on an undergraduate degree in the geosciences.
Title of Award: Association for Women Geoscientists Minority Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Chemistry; Earth sciences; Education; Geology; Geosciences; Hydrology; Meteorology; Oceanography Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: A total of $5,000 is available for this program each year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to women who are African American, Hispanic, or Native American (including Eskimo, Hawaiian, Samoan, or American Indian). Applicants must be full-time students working on, or planning to work on, an undergraduate degree in the geosciences (including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, meteorology, physical oceanography, planetary geology, or earth science education). They must submit a 500-word essay on why they have chosen to major in the geosciences and their career goals, 2 letters of recommendation, high school and/or college transcripts, and SAT or ACT scores. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: This program, first offered in 2004, is supported by ExxonMobil Foundation.

3140 ■ HANSCOM OFFICERS' WIVES' CLUB

Attn: Scholarship Chair
P.O. Box 557
Bedford, MA 01730
Tel: (781)275-1251
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hanscomowc.org
To provide financial assistance to children of military personnel and veterans in New England who are interested in studying aeronautics and space in college.
Title of Award: COL Chuck Jones Memorial Award Area, Field, or Subject: Aeronautics; Aerospace sciences; Communications; Engineering; Meteorology; Space and planetary sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to college-bound high school seniors living in New England who are dependents of active-duty, retired, or deceased military members of any branch of service. Also eligible are dependents of military recruiters working in the New York area and students living elsewhere but whose military sponsor is stationed at Hanscom Air Force Base. Applicants must demonstrate qualities of responsibility, leadership, scholastics, citizenship, and diversity of interest. They must have a valid military identification card and be planning to work on a college degree in a field related to aeronautics and space (including communications, meteorology, air/space maintenance, manufacturing processing, engineering, and the astronaut program). Along with their application, they must submit a 2-page essay on their educational goals, how their educational experience will help prepare them to pursue future goals, and how they intend to apply their education to better their community. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program was established to honor a victim of an airplane crash on September 11, 2001. It is sponsored by the Paul Revere Chapter of the Air Force Association.

3141 ■ HANSCOM OFFICERS' WIVES' CLUB

Attn: Scholarship Chair
P.O. Box 557
Bedford, MA 01730
Tel: (781)275-1251
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hanscomowc.org
To provide financial assistance to children of military personnel and veterans in New England who are interested in studying aviation in college.
Title of Award: Brian Sweeney Memorial Award Area, Field, or Subject:

Aviation; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; Engineering, Civil; Environmental science; Meteorology; Protective services Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to college-bound high school seniors living in New England who are dependents of active-duty, retired, or deceased military members of any branch of service. Also eligible are dependents of military recruiters working in the New York area and students living elsewhere but whose military sponsor is stationed at Hanscom Air Force Base. Applicants must demonstrate qualities of responsibility, leadership, scholastics, citizenship, and diversity of interest. They must have a valid military identification card and be planning to work on a college degree in a field related to aviation (including civil, aeronautical, and environmental engineering; maintenance; management; aviation safety and security; and meteorology). Along with their application, they must submit a 2-page essay on their educational goals, how their educational experience will help prepare them to pursue future goals, and how they intend to apply their education to better their community. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program was established to honor a victim of an airplane crash on September 11, 2001. It is sponsored by the Paul Revere Chapter of the Air Force Association.

3142 ■ CLARE BOOTHE LUCE FUND

c/o Henry Luce Foundation, Inc.
111 West 50th Street, Suite 4601
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (212)489-7700
Fax: (212)581-9541
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hluce.org
To provide funding to women interested in studying science or engineering at the undergraduate level at designated universities.
Title of Award: Clare Boothe Luce Scholarships in Science and Engineering Area, Field, or Subject: Biological and clinical sciences; Chemistry; Computer and information sciences; Engineering; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; Engineering, Civil; Engineering, Electrical; Engineering, Mechanical; Engineering, Nuclear; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Meteorology; Physics Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies; since the program began, more than 800 of these scholarships have been awarded. Funds Available: The amount awarded is established individually by each of the participating institutions. The stipends are intended to augment rather than replace any existing institutional support in these fields. Each stipend is calculated to include the cost of room and board as well as tuition and other fees or expenses. Duration: 2 years; in certain special circumstances, awards for the full 4 years of undergraduate study may be offered.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to female undergraduate students (particularly juniors and seniors) majoring in biology, chemistry, computer science, engineering (aeronautical, civil, electrical, mechanical, nuclear, and others), mathematics, meteorology, and physics. Applicants must be U.S. citizens attending 1 of the 12 designated colleges and universities affiliated with this program; periodically, other institutions are invited to participate. Premedical science majors are ineligible for this competition. The participating institutions select the recipients without regard to race, age, religion, ethnic background, or need. All awards are made on the basis of merit. Deadline for Receipt: Varies; check with the participating institutions for their current schedule. Additional Information: The participating institutions are Boston University, Colby College, Creighton University, Fordham University, Georgetown University, Marymount University, Mount Holyoke College, St. John's University, Santa Clara University, Seton Hall University, Trinity College, and University of Notre Dame.

3143 ■ NAVAL WEATHER SERVICE ASSOCIATION

c/o Jim Stone, Secretary-Treasurer
600 East Fifth Street, Apartment 179
Waverly, OH 45690-1500
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.navalweather.org/NWSA_Scholarships.htm
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors and currently-enrolled undergraduates who plan to work on a college degree in selected science or engineering fields.
Title of Award: Naval Weather Service Association Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; Meteorology; Oceanography Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: Stipends range from $500 to $2,000. Funds may be used to pay for tuition, fees, books, supplies, equipment, or any other educational expenses. Duration: 1 year; recipients may reapply.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students who are enrolled or planning to enroll in an undergraduate program in meteorology, oceanography, or aerospace engineering. Applicants must be U.S. citizens and sponsored by a member of the association. Priority is given to graduating high school seniors, but current undergraduates are also eligible. Students planning to attend junior or community colleges may apply when they intend to transfer to a 4-year college or university. Selection is based on academic record, leadership skills, character, all-around ability, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: The Naval Weather Service Association is a nonprofit organization open to retired and active-duty meteorological and oceanographic personnel of the Navy and Marine Corps.

3144 ■ OAK RIDGE INSTITUTE FOR SCIENCE AND EDUCATION

Attn: Science and Engineering Education
P.O. Box 117
Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117
Tel: (865)576-9279
Fax: (865)241-5220
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.orau.gov/orise.htm
To provide financial assistance and research experience to undergraduate students at minority serving institutions who are majoring in scientific fields of interest to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
Title of Award: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Educational Partnership Program with Minority Serving Institutions Undergraduate Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Atmospheric science; Biological and clinical sciences; Cartography/Surveying; Chemistry; Computer and information sciences; Engineering; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Geography; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Meteorology; Photogrammetry; Physical sciences; Physics Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 10 each year. Funds Available: This program provides payment of tuition and fees (to a maximum of $4,000 per year) and a stipend during the internship of $650 per week. Duration: 1 academic year and 2 summers.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to juniors and seniors at minority serving institutions, including Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs), Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), and Tribal Colleges and Universities (TCUs). Applicants must be majoring in atmospheric science, biology, cartography, chemistry, computer science, engineering, environmental science, geodesy, geography, marine science, mathematics, meteorology, photogrammetry, physical science, physics, or remote sensing. They must also be interested in participating in a research internship at a NOAA site. U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: This program is funded by NOAA through an interagency agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy and administered by Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

3145 ■ U.S. AIR FORCE

Attn: Headquarters AFROTC/RRUC
551 East Maxwell Boulevard Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-5917
Tel: (334)953-2091; (866)423-7682
Fax: (334)953-6167
Web Site: http://www.afrotc.com/scholarships/incolschol/expressSchol.php
To provide financial assistance to students who are interested in joining Air Force ROTC and majoring in critical Air Force officer fields in college.
Title of Award: Air Force ROTC Express Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Atmospheric science; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; Engineering, Civil; Engineering, Computer; Engineering, Electrical; Engineering, Mechanical; Environmental science; Meteorology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Funds Available: Awards are type 2 AFROTC scholarships that provide for payment of tuition and fees, to a maximum of $15,000 per year, plus an annual book allowance of $600. All recipients are also awarded a tax-free monthly subsistence allowance that is $250 for freshmen, $300 for sophomores, $350 for juniors, and $400 for seniors. Duration: 3 and a half years, until completion of a bachelor's degree.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to U.S. citizens who are completing at least their first year of college and are working on a degree in fields that may change annually but are of critical interest to the Air Force. Applicants must have a GPA of 2.5 or higher and meet all other academic and physical requirements for participation in AFROTC. At the time of their Air Force commissioning, they may be no more than 31 years of age. They must be able to pass the Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT) and the Air Force ROTC Physical Fitness Test. years as active-duty Air Force officers following graduation from college. Additional Information: Recently, freshmen were eligible if they were majoring in computer, electrical, or environmental engineering. Sophomores and juniors were eligible if they were majoring in those fields, meteorology and atmospheric sciences, or in the following engineering disciplines: aeronautical, aerospace, astronautical, civil, or mechanical. Recipients must also complete 4 years of aerospace studies courses at 1 of the 144 colleges and universities that have an Air Force ROTC unit on campus or 1 of the approximately 900 colleges that have cross-enrollment agreements with those institutions. They must also attend a 4-week summer training camp at an Air Force base, usually between their sophomore and junior years. Following completion of their bachelor's degree, scholarship recipients earn a commission as a second lieutenant in the Air Force and serve at least 4 years.

3146 ■ U.S. AIR FORCE

Attn: Headquarters AFROTC/RRUC
551 East Maxwell Boulevard Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-5917
Tel: (334)953-2091; (866)423-7682
Fax: (334)953-6167
Web Site: http://www.afrotc.com/scholarships/hsschol/types.php
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors or graduates who are interested in joining Air Force ROTC in college and are willing to serve as Air Force officers following completion of their bachelor's degree.
Title of Award: Air Force ROTC High School Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Chemistry; Computer and information sciences; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; Engineering, Architectural; Engineering, Civil; Engineering, Computer; Engineering, Electrical; Engineering, Mechanical; Environmental science; General studies/Field of study not specified; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Meteorology; Operations research; Physics Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Approximately 2,000 each year. Funds Available: Type 1 scholarships provide payment of full tuition and most laboratory fees, as well as $600 for books. Type 2 scholarships pay the same benefits except tuition is capped at $15,000 per year; students who attend an institution where tuition exceeds $15,000 must pay the difference. Type 7 scholarships pay full tuition and most laboratory fees, but students must attend a college or university where the tuition is less than $9,000 per year or a public college or university where they qualify for the in-state tuition rate; they may not attend an institution with higher tuition and pay the difference. Approximately 5% of scholarship offers are for Type 1, approximately 20% are for Type 2, and approximately 75% are for type 7. All recipients are also awarded a tax-free subsistence allowance for 10 months of each year that is $250 per month as a freshman, $300 per month as a sophomore, $350 per month as a junior, and $400 per month as a senior. Duration: 4 years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors who are U.S. citizens at least 17 of age and have been accepted at a college or university with an Air Force ROTC unit on campus or a college with a cross-enrollment agreement with such a college. Applicants must have a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or higher and an ACT composite score of 24 or higher or an SAT score of 1100 (mathematics and verbal portion only) or higher. At the time of their commissioning in the Air Force, they must be no more than 31 years of age. They must agree to serve for at least 4 years as active-duty Air Force officers following graduation from college. Deadline for Receipt: November of each year. Additional Information: Recently, approximately 70% of these scholarships were offered to students planning to major in the science and technical fields of architecture, chemistry, computer science, engineering (aeronautical, aerospace, astronautical, architectural, civil, computer, electrical, environmental, or mechanical), mathematics, meteorology and atmospheric sciences, operations research, or physics. Approximately 30% were offered to students in all other fields. While scholarship recipients can major in any subject, they must enroll in 4 years of aerospace studies courses at 1 of the 144 colleges and universities that have an Air Force ROTC unit on campus; students may also attend nearly 900 other colleges that have cross-enrollment agreements with the institutions that have an Air Force ROTC unit on campus. Recipients must attend a 4-week summer training camp at an Air Force base, usually between their sophomore and junior years. Most cadets incur a 4-year active-duty commitment. Pilots incur a 10-year active-duty service commitment after successfully completing Specialized Undergraduate Pilot Training and navigators incur a 6-year commitment after successfully completing Specialized Undergraduate Navigator Training. The minimum service obligation for intelligence and Air Battle Management career fields is 5 years.

3147 ■ U.S. AIR FORCE

Attn: Headquarters AFROTC/RRUC
551 East Maxwell Boulevard Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-5917
Tel: (334)953-2091; (866)423-7682
Fax: (334)953-6167
Web Site: http://www.afrotc.com/scholarships/incolschol/incolProgram.php
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students who are willing to join Air Force ROTC in college and serve as Air Force officers following completion of their bachelor's degree.
Title of Award: Air Force ROTC In-College Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Chemistry; Computer and information sciences; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; Engineering, Architectural; Engineering, Civil; Engineering, Computer; Engineering, Electrical; Engineering, Mechanical; Environmental science; General studies/Field of study not specified; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Meteorology; Operations research; Physics Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Cadets selected in Phase 1 are awarded type 2 AFROTC scholarships that provide for payment of tuition and fees, to a maximum of $15,000 per year. A limited number of cadets selected in Phase 2 are also awarded type 2 AFROTC scholarships, but most are awarded type 3 AFROTC scholarships with tuition capped at $9,000 per year. Cadets selected in Phase 3 are awarded type 6 AFROTC scholarships with tuition capped at $3,000 per year. All recipients are also awarded a book allowance of $600 and a tax-free subsistence allowance for 10 months of each year that is $300 per month during the sophomore year, $350 during the junior year, and $400 during the senior year. Duration: 3 years for students selected as freshmen or 2 years for students selected as sophomores.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to U.S. citizens enrolled as freshmen or sophomores at 1 of the 144 colleges and universities that have an Air Force ROTC unit on campus. Applicants must have a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher and be able to pass the Air Force Officer Qualifying Test and the Air Force ROTC Physical Fitness Test. At the time of commissioning, they may be no more than 31 years of age. They must agree to serve for at least 4 years as active-duty Air Force officers following graduation from college. Phase 1 is open to students enrolled in the Air Force ROTC program who do not currently have a scholarship but now wish to apply. Phase 2 is open to Phase 1 nonselects and students not enrolled in Air Force ROTC. Phase 3 is open only to Phase 2 nonselects. Recently, the program gave preference to students majoring in the science and technical fields of architecture, chemistry, computer science, engineering (aeronautical, aerospace, astronautical, architectural, civil, computer, electrical, environmental, or mechanical), mathematics, meteorology and atmospheric sciences, operations research, or physics. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: While scholarship recipients can major in any subject, they must complete 4 years of aerospace studies courses at 1 of the 144 colleges or universities that have an Air Force ROTC unit on campus. Recipients must also attend a 4-week summer training camp at an Air Force base, usually between their sophomore and junior years; 2-year scholarship awardees attend in the summer after their junior year. Current military personnel are eligible for early release from active duty in order to enter the Air Force ROTC program. Following completion of their bachelor's degree, scholarship recipients earn a commission as a second lieutenant in the Air Force and serve at least 4 years.

3148 ■ U.S. AIR FORCE

Attn: Headquarters AFROTC/RRUE Enlisted Commissioning Section
551 East Maxwell Boulevard Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-5917
Tel: (334)953-2091; (866)423-7682
Fax: (334)953-6167
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.afoats.af.mil/AFROTC/EnlistedComm/AECP.asp
To allow selected enlisted Air Force personnel to earn a bachelor's degree in approved majors by providing financial assistance for full-time college study.
Title of Award: Airman Education and Commissioning Program Area, Field, or Subject: African studies; Asian studies; Computer and information sciences; Engineering; Foreign languages; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Meteorology; Near Eastern studies; Nursing; Physics; Russian studies Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Approximately 60 each year. Funds Available: While participating in this program, cadets remain on active duty in the Air Force and receive their regular salary and benefits. They also receive payment of tuition and fees up to $15,000 per year and an annual textbook allowance of $600. Duration: 1 to 3 years, until completion of a bachelor's degree.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible to participate in this program are enlisted members of the Air Force who have been accepted at a university or college (or approved crosstown institution) that is associated with AFROTC and that offers an approved major. The majors currently supported are computer science, all ABET-accredited engineering fields (not engineering technology), foreign area studies (limited to Middle East, Africa, Asia, Russia/Eurasia), foreign languages (limited to Arabic, Armenian, Azeri, Chinese, French, Georgian, Hebrew, Hindi, Indonesian, Kazakh, Pashto, Persian Farsi, Russian, Swahili, and Turkish), mathematics, meteorology, nursing, and physics. Applicants must have completed at least 1 year of time-in-service and 1 year of time-on-station. They must have scores on the Air Force Officer Qualifying Test of at least 15 on the verbal and 10 on the quantitative and be able to pass the Air Force ROTC Physical Fitness Test. Normally they should have completed at least 30 semester hours of college study with a GPA of 2.75 or higher. They must be younger than 31 years of age or otherwise able to be commissioned before they become 35 years of age. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: While attending college, participants in this program attend ROTC classes at their college or university. Upon completing their degree, they are commissioned to serve in the Air Force in their area of specialization with an active-duty service commitment of at least 4 years. Further information is available from base education service officers or an Air Force ROTC unit. This program does not provide for undergraduate flying training.

3149 ■ U.S. AIR FORCE

Attn: Headquarters AFROTC/RRUE Enlisted Commissioning Section
551 East Maxwell Boulevard Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-5917
Tel: (334)953-2091; (866)423-7682
Fax: (334)953-6167
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.afoats.af.mil/AFROTC/EnlistedComm/ASCP.asp
To allow selected enlisted Air Force personnel to earn a bachelor's degree in approved majors by providing financial assistance for full-time college study.
Title of Award: Airman Scholarship and Commissioning Program Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Atmospheric science; Chemistry; Computer and information sciences; Engineering; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; Engineering, Architectural; Engineering, Civil; Engineering, Computer; Engineering, Electrical; Engineering, Mechanical; Environmental science; General studies/Field of study not specified; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Meteorology; Operations research; Physics Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Awards are type 2 AFROTC scholarships that provide for payment of tuition and fees, to a maximum of $15,000 per year, plus an annual book allowance of $600. All recipients are also awarded a tax-free subsistence allowance for 10 months of each year that is $300 per month during their sophomore year, $350 during their junior year, and $400 during their senior year. Duration: 2 to 4 years, until completion of a bachelor's degree.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to active-duty enlisted members of the Air Force who have completed at least 1 year of continuous active duty and at least 1 year on station. Applicants normally must have completed at least 24 semester hours of graded college credit with a cumulative college GPA of 2.5 or higher. If they have not completed 24 hours of graded college credit, they must have an ACT score of 24 or higher or an SAT combined verbal and mathematics score of 1100 or higher. They must also have scores on the Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT) of 15 or more on the verbal scale and 10 or more on the quantitative scale and be able to pass the Air Force ROTC Physical Fitness Test. Applicants must have been accepted at a college or university (including crosstown schools) offering the AFROTC 4-year program. When they complete the program and receive their commission, they may not be 31 years of age or older. U.S. citizenship is required. Recently, awards were presented according to the following priorities: 1) computer, electrical, and environmental engineering; 2) aeronautical, aerospace, architectural, astronautical, civil, and mechanical engineering and meteorology and atmospheric sciences; 3) all other ABET-accredited engineering majors, architecture, chemistry, computer science, mathematics, operations research, and physics; 4) all other majors. Deadline for Receipt: October of each year. Additional Information: Selectees separate from the active-duty Air Force, join an AFROTC detachment, and become full-time students. Upon completing their degree, they are commissioned as officers and returned to active duty in the Air Force with a 4-year service obligation. Further information is available from base education service officers or an Air Force ROTC unit.

3150 ■ U.S. AIR FORCE

Attn: Headquarters AFROTC/RRUE Enlisted Commissioning Section
551 East Maxwell Boulevard Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-5917
Tel: (334)953-2091; (866)423-7682
Fax: (334)953-6167
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.afoats.af.mil/AFROTC/EnlistedComm/POCERP.asp
To allow selected enlisted Air Force personnel to earn a baccalaureate degree by providing financial assistance for full-time college study.
Title of Award: Professional Officer Course Early Release Program Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Atmospheric science; Chemistry; Computer and information sciences; Engineering; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; Engineering, Architectural; Engineering, Civil; Engineering, Computer; Engineering, Electrical; Engineering, Mechanical; Environmental science; General studies/Field of study not specified; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Meteorology; Operations research; Physics Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Participants receive a stipend for 10 months of the year that is $350 per month during the first year and $400 per month during the second year. Scholarship recipients earn the Professional Officer Course Incentive of $3,000 per year for tuition and $600 per year for books. Duration: 2 years (no more and no less).
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible to participate in this program are enlisted members of the Air Force under the age of 30 (or otherwise able to be commissioned before becoming 35 years of age) who have completed at least 1 year on continuous active duty, have served on station for at least 1 year, and have no more than 2 years remaining to complete their initial baccalaureate degree. Scholarship applicants must be younger than 31 years of age when they graduate and earn their commission. All applicants must have been accepted at a college or university offering the AFROTC 4-year program and must have a cumulative college GPA of 2.5 or higher. Their Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT) scores must be at least 15 on the verbal and 10 on the quantitative. Applicants who have not completed 24 units of college work must have an ACT composite score of 24 or higher or an SAT combined verbal and mathematics score of 1100 or higher. U.S. citizenship is required. Recently, awards were presented according to the following priorities: 1) computer, electrical, and environmental engineering; 2) aeronautical, aerospace, architectural, astronautical, civil, and mechanical engineering and meteorology and atmospheric sciences; 3) all other ABET-accredited engineering majors, architecture, chemistry, computer science, mathematics, operations research, and physics; 4) all other majors. Deadline for Receipt: October of each year. Additional Information: Upon completing their degree, selectees are commissioned as officers in the Air Force with a 4-year service obligation. Further information is available from base education service officers or an Air Force ROTC unit.

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Meteorology

Meteorology

Resources

Meteorology is a science that studies the processes and phenomena of the atmosphere.

Meteorology is subdivided into many specialty areas includingbut not limited tophysical meteorology (dealing with physical aspects of the atmosphere such as rain or cloud formation, or rainbows and mirages), synoptic meteorology (the analysis and forecast of large-scale weather systems), dynamic meteorology (studies of change based upon the laws of theoretical physics and geochemistry), climatology, aviation meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric optics, and agricultural meteorology. While meteorology usually refers to the study of Earths atmosphere, atmospheric science can include the study of the atmospheres of all the planets in the solar system.

Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle (384322 BC), the first to use the word meteorology in his book Meteorologica (c. 340 BC) summarizing the knowledge of that time about atmospheric phenomena. He speculatively wrote about clouds, rain, snow, wind, and climatic changes, and although many of his findings later proved to be incorrect, many of them were insightful.

Although systematic weather data recording began about the fourteenth century, the lack of weather measuring instruments made only visual observations possible at that time. The real scientific study of atmospheric phenomena started later with the invention of devices to measure weather data: the thermometer in about 1600 for measuring temperature, the barometer for measuring atmospheric pressure in 1643, the anemometer for measuring wind speed in 1667, and the hair hygrometer for measuring humidity in 1780. In 1802, the first cloud classification system was formulated, and in 1805, a wind scale was first introduced. These measuring instruments and new ideas made possible gathering of actual data from the atmosphere giving the basis for scientific theories for properties of the atmosphere (pressure, temperature, humidity, etc.) and its governing physical laws.

In the early 1840s, the first weather forecasting services started with the use of the telegraph to transmit meteorological information. At that time, meteorology was still in the descriptive phase, and relied on simple observation with little scientific theories and calculations involved, although weather maps could be drawn, and storm systems and surface wind patterns were being recognized.

Meteorology became more scientifically rigorous during World War I, when Norwegian physicist Vilhelm Bjerknes (18621951) introduced a modern meteorological theory stating that weather patterns in the temperate middle latitudes are the result of the interaction between warm and cold air masses. His descriptions of atmospheric phenomena and forecasting techniques were based on the laws of physics, and stipulated that predictions could be made of atmospheric dynamics based on physical laws.

Advances in understand physical events also translate to advances in understanding dynamics on a global scale. For example, a nucleation event is the process of condensation or aggregation (gathering) that results in the formation of larger drops or crystals around a material that acts as a structural nucleus around which such condensation or aggregation proceeds. Moreover, the introduction of such structural nuclei can often induce the processes of condensation or crystal growth. Accordingly, nucleation is one of the ways that a phase transition can take place in a material. These fundamentals regarding nucleation are true whether in a microchemistry experiment or in the formation of rain and snow crystals.

In addition to an importance in explaining a wide variety of geophysical and geochemical phenomena including crystal formationthe principles of nucleation were used in cloud seeding weather modification experiments where nuclei of inert materials were dispersed into clouds with the hopes of inducing condensation and rainfall.

By the 1940s, upper-level measurements of pressure, temperature, wind and humidity clarified more about the vertical properties of the atmosphere. Observations made during World War II (19391945) also led to discovery of the jet stream. In the 1950s, radar became important for detecting precipitation over a remote area. Also in the 1950s, with the invention of the computer, weather forecasting became not only quicker but also more reliable, because the computers could solve the mathematical equations of the atmospheric models much faster. Early computer simulations of weather by meteorologist Edward Lorenz were also important in the development of chaos theory, reflecting the complexity of weather forecasting. In 1960, the first meteorological satellite was launched to provide 24-hour monitoring of weather events worldwide.

These satellites now give three-dimensional data to high-speed computers for faster and more precise weather predictions. Computers are capable of plotting the observation data, and solving huge models not only for near-term weather forecasting, but also climatic models on time scales of centuries. Predictions still contain degrees of uncertainty, computers still have their capacity limits and the models used still contain many uncertainties. Advances in prediction reliability are critical because changes in climate and weatherespecially predictions involving severe weather events such as hurricanes and tornadoescan greatly and adversely impact both personal safety and economic interests.

Many complicated issues remain at the forefront of meteorology, including air pollution, global warming, El Nião events, climate change, ozone hole, and acid rain issues.

See also Air masses and fronts; Atmosphere observation; Atmosphere, composition and structure; Atmospheric circulation; Atmospheric temperature; Dew point; Fog; Greenhouse effect; Hydrologic cycle; Weather forecasting; Weather mapping; Weather modification; Wind chill; Wind shear.

Resources

BOOKS

Ahrens, Donald C. Meteorology Today. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks Cole, 2006.

Palmer, Tim and Renate Hagedorn, ed. Predictability of Weather and Climate. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Agnes Galambosi

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Meteorology

Meteorology

Introduction

Meteorology is the science that deals with the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere, especially as it relates to weather. Where Earth's atmosphere interacts with the oceans, the science of weather incorporates information about atmosphere-ocean systems and the hydrologic cycle—the natural circulation of water on Earth. Meteorology also includes a study of air pressure and temperature as variables that relate to winds, air masses, and weather fronts. Meteorologists not only forecast the weather on a short-term basis, but also attempt to explain why and how the weather changes over time.

The study of weather on a long-term basis is often called climatology rather than meteorology. Climate refers to the expected or general weather conditions over periods of years or longer. Although it is determined by the same variables as weather—temperature, precipitation, winds, and humidity—a region's climate is more than an average of these variables. It includes weather extremes, as well as the general range of expected weather. Neither weather nor climate is limited by national boundaries.

Human causes of climate change—such as the emissions from a single fossil-fuel power plant—may start slowly and affect only local weather for a time. However,

the cumulative effects of the emissions from many power plants over many years may result in a global climate change. According to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), weather, climate, and water-related events are responsible for nearly 90% of all natural disasters.

Historical Background and Scientific Foundations

Meteorologists study Earth's major atmospheric circulation patterns that are, in part, produced as a result of uneven heating of the atmosphere between the poles and the equator. The circulation pattern is modulated by the tilt of Earth's axis, which causes changing seasons. Another cause of atmospheric circulation is the fact that land and water absorb and reflect the sun's radiation at different rates. These variables produce global atmospheric circulation patterns that are interrelated with ocean circulation.

Strong repeating atmospheric-oceanic circulation patterns oscillate in major regions of the globe, affecting local weather systems and, in the long term, climate changes. One of the most dominant is the El Niño/ Southern Oscillation that brings rain to the U.S. Pacific coast and droughts to Australia.

El Niño is a warmer than normal ocean surface temperature effect that alternates with La Niña, a colder than normal ocean surface temperature. La Niña is characterized by persistent rains in Indonesia and northern Australia. There usually are several years of normal temperatures between the two events.

Scientists expect changes in oscillation patterns as a result of climate change, but they do not yet know what these changes will be. Satellite data and computer model technology are being used to study Earth's changing climate.

Instruments have been used to collect data about the weather since Italian scientists developed a thermometer and, at about the same time, Evangelista Torricelli (1608–1647), another Italian scientist, invented the first barometer to measure air pressure. However, continuous scientific records of weather data go back only to the 1800s. Not until 1972, when the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched Landsat 1, the first of a series of Earth Resources Satellites, were data collected on a broad scale about Earth.

The Landsat satellites take digital photographs in visible and infrared wavelengths of land and coastal regions. They are not designed to collect weather data. However, the Landsat program has accumulated a 15-year photo record of vegetation and water resources that has become very useful for the study of climate trends.

WORDS TO KNOW

BUOYS: Tethered or free-floating devices that bear navigational aids, instruments, and in some cases radio equipment for automatically collecting and reporting data on oceanic and atmospheric conditions. Buoys may float on or beneath the surface, depending on their purpose.

CLIMATE: The average weather (usually taken over a 30-year time period) for a particular region and time period. Climate is not the same as weather, but rather, it is the average pattern of weather for a particular region. Weather describes the short-term state of the atmosphere. Climatic elements include precipitation, temperature, humidity, sunshine, wind velocity, phenomena such as fog, frost, and hail storms, and other measures of the weather.

EL NIÑO/SOUTHERN OSCILLATION: Global climate cycle that arises from interaction of ocean and atmospheric circulations. Every 2 to 7 years, westward-blowing winds over the Pacific subside, allowing warm water to migrate across the Pacific from west to east. This suppresses normal upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich waters in the eastern Pacific, shrinking fish populations and changing weather patterns around the world.

FOSSIL FUELS: Fuels formed by biological processes and transformed into solid or fluid minerals over geological time. Fossil fuels include coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Fossil fuels are non-renewable on the timescale of human civilization, because their natural replenishment would take many millions of years.

HYDROLOGIC CYCLE: The process of evaporation, vertical and horizontal transport of vapor, condensation, precipitation, and the flow of water from continents to oceans. It is a major factor in determining climate through its influence on surface vegetation, the clouds, snow and ice, and soil moisture. The hydrologic cycle is responsible for 25 to 30% of the mid-latitudes' heat transport from the equatorial to polar regions.

LA NIÑA: A period of stronger-than-normal trade winds and unusually low sea-surface temperatures in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean; the opposite of El Niño.

In the 1980s, NASA started the Earth Observing System (EOS) to use satellites specifically to collect data with sensors to observe land, oceans, the atmosphere, and radiant energy. Three coordinated orbits are being used with instruments supplied by scientists from Canada, France, Brazil, Russia, and Japan included in the studies. Some scientists have criticized the NASA programs bysuggesting that the data being collected by NASA through the EOS satellites are only useful for short-term weather forecasting and not useful for long-range climate studies.

Since oceans make up about 70% of Earth's surface area, direct measurements at ocean surfaces are important for both weather forecasting and long-term climate research. Scientists need measurements of rising oceans, glacial melting, ocean temperatures, wave and wind speeds and direction, and air pressure above the ocean surfaces.

Buoys are deployed in coastal and offshore waters to collect and transmit information on air pressure, wind direction, speed and gusts, air and sea temperatures, and wave energy data. An array of 70 moored buoys is deployed in the tropical Pacific Ocean to send statistics on the ocean and weather to shore via a satellite system maintained by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Volunteer ships are equipped with sensors on their hulls that also are used for direct measurements at sea level as they travel around the globe.

Impacts and Issues

At the end of the nineteenth century, a number of leading scientists, including Swedish chemist and Noble laureate Svante Arrhenius (1859–1927), speculated on climate changes through history that produced ice ages for some periods and widespread tropical climates in other periods. The presence or absence of excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere was thought to explain the climate changes.

Arrhenius calculated temperature on Earth from a formula for the equilibrium between solar radiation and Earth's radiation from ground and the effect of oceanic or atmospheric currents. He then calculated an increase in global temperature that would result with varying amounts of increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The source of great excesses of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere was the question that could not be answered in 1900.

The source of increasing excesses of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere in the twenty-first century is not in question. A century after Arrhenius speculated on past global warming events, scientists have hard data to document global warming and changes in weather patterns that are the result of carbon dioxide accumulating in the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels. The impact of meteorological data collected from climate studies has been a widespread acceptance of global warming and the need to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Unless this is done, global warming will continue with potentially weather-related catastrophic consequences.

Scientists from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), an agency of the United Nations, provide information on Earth's global weather and its relation to atmosphere and oceanic variables that control the weather and lead to climate change. In 1988, the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established by the United Nations and co-sponsored by WMO. It assesses the data collected about the changing atmosphere and oceans, and from that data provides information on the global socio-economic impacts of climate changes.

See Also Climate Change; El Ninño and La Ninña; IPCC Climate Change 2007 Report; Ocean Circulation and Currents.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Web Sites

Arrhenius, Svante. “On the Influence of Carbonic Acid in the Air upon the Temperature of the Ground.” Lemoyne College, Department of Chemistry. <http://web.lemoyne.edu/~giunta/ARRHENIUS.HTML> (accessed September 1, 2007).

“Climate.” World Meteorological Organization. <http://www.wmo.ch/pages/themes/climate/index_en.html> (accessed September 1, 2007).

“Persistent Patterns that Shape Weather and Climate Variability—A Glossary.” UCAR: The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. <http://www.ucar.edu/news/backgrounders/patterns.shtml> (accessed September 1, 2007).

“Satellites Let Scientists View Earth as Integrated System.” USINFO.STATE.GOV, August 31, 2007. <http://usinfo.state.gov/xarchives/display.html?p=washfile-english&y=2007&m=August&x=20070831140026lcnirellep0.619137> (accessed September 1, 2007).

“Weather.” World Meteorological Organization. <http://www.wmo.ch/pages/themes/weather/index_en.html> (accessed September 1, 2007).

“What's the Difference Between Weather and Climate?” U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. <http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/noaa-n/climate/climate_weather.html> (accessed September 1, 2007).

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Meteorology

Meteorology

Meteorology is derived from the Greek words meteora meaning things in the air or things above, and logy meaning science or discourse. It is a branch of physics concerned with the study and theory of atmospheric phenomena and is frequently equated to atmospheric science. One of the earliest references to this branch of physics is Aristotle's Meteorologica written around 340 b.c.

In the modern context meteorology is founded upon the basic physical principles and laws governing the energy and mass exchanges within the earth's atmosphere and involves the study of short term variations of atmospheric properties (temperature, moisture, wind) and interactions with the earth's surface. The ability to predict and explain short term changes in the atmosphere from observations and numerical models (using the laws of physics) is an important dimension of meteorology as well. Thus the words meteorologist and forecaster are often used interchangeably to describe someone who can predict the weather.

Meteorologists are trained in observations, instrumentation, data processing, and modeling techniques for the purpose of analyzing and predicting trajectories of major weather systems, including their associated temperature, precipitation, wind, and sky conditions. Modern methods include the use of automated surface observation systems, radar, satellites, radiosondes, wind profilers, and high resolution computer models (sometimes called global circulation models) to estimate temporal and spatial variability.

See also Acid rain; Climate; Cloud chemistry; Hydrologic cycle; Photochemical smog

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Meteorology

Meteorology

Meteorology is a science that studies the processes and phenomena of the atmosphere.

Meteorology is subdivided into many specialty areas including—but not limited to—physical meteorology (dealing with physical aspects of the atmosphere such as rain or cloud formation, or rainbows and mirages), synoptic meteorology (the analysis and forecast of large-scale weather systems), dynamic meteorology (studies of change based upon the laws of theoretical physics and geochemistry ), climatology, aviation meteorology, atmospheric chemistry , atmospheric optics , and agricultural meteorology. While meteorology usually refers to the study of Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric science can include the study of the atmospheres of all the planets in the solar system .

Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle (384–322 b.c.), the first to use the word meteorology in his book Meteorologica (c. 340 b.c.,) summarizing the knowledge of that time about atmospheric phenomena. He speculatively wrote about clouds , rain, snow, wind , and climatic changes, and although many of his findings later proved to be incorrect, many of them were insightful.

Although systematic weather data recording began about the fourteenth century, the lack of weather measuring instruments made only visual observations possible at that time. The real scientific study of atmospheric phenomena started later with the invention of devices to measure weather data: the thermometer in about 1600 for measuring temperature , the barometer for measuring atmospheric pressure in 1643, the anemometer for measuring wind speed in 1667, and the hair hygrometer for measuring humidity in 1780. In 1802, the first cloud classification system was formulated, and in 1805, a wind scale was first introduced. These measuring instruments and new ideas made possible gathering of actual data from the atmosphere giving the basis for scientific theories for properties of the atmosphere (pressure , temperature, humidity, etc.) and its governing physical laws.

In the early 1840s, the first weather forecasting services started with the use of the telegraph to transmit meteorological information. At that time, meteorology was still in the descriptive phase, and relied on simple observation with little scientific theories and calculations involved, although weather maps could be drawn, and storm systems and surface wind patterns were being recognized.

Meteorology became more scientifically rigorous during World War I, when Norwegian physicist Vilhelm Bjerknes (1862–1951) introduced a modern meteorological theory stating that weather patterns in the temperate middle latitudes are the result of the interaction between warm and cold air masses. His descriptions of atmospheric phenomena and forecasting techniques were based on the laws of physics, and stipulated that predictions could be made of atmospheric dynamics based on physical laws.

Advances in understand physical events also translate to advances in understanding dynamics on a global scale. For example, a nucleation event is the process of condensation or aggregation (gathering) that results in the formation of larger drops or crystals around a material that acts as a structural nucleus around which such condensation or aggregation proceeds. Moreover, the introduction of such structural nuclei can often induce the processes of condensation or crystal growth. Accordingly, nucleation is one of the ways that a phase transition can take place in a material. These fundamentals regarding nucleation are true whether in a microchemistry experiment or in the formation of rain and snow crystals.

In addition to an importance in explaining a wide variety of geophysical and geochemical phenomena—including crystal formation—the principles of nucleation were used in cloud seeding weather modification experiments where nuclei of inert materials were dispersed into clouds with the hopes of inducing condensation and rainfall.

By the 1940s, upper-level measurements of pressure, temperature, wind and humidity clarified more about the vertical properties of the atmosphere. In the 1950s, radar became important for detecting precipitation over a remote area. Also in the 1950s, with the invention of the computer, weather forecasting became not only quicker but also more reliable, because the computers could solve the mathematical equations of the atmospheric models much faster. In 1960, the first meteorological satellite was launched to provide 24-hour monitoring of weather events worldwide.

These satellites now give three-dimensional data to high-speed computers for faster and more precise weather predictions. Computers are capable of plotting the observation data, and solving huge models not only for near-term weather forecasting, but also climatic models on time scales of centuries. Predictions still contain degrees of uncertainty, computers still have their capacity limits and the models used still contain many uncertainties. Advances in prediction reliability are critical because changes in climate and weather—especially predicitios involving severe weather events such as hurricanes and tornadoes—can greatly and adversely impact both personal safety and economic interests.

Many complicated issues remain at the forefront of meteorology, including air pollution , global warming , El Niño events, climate change, ozone hole, and acid rain issues.

See also Air masses and fronts; Atmosphere observation; Atmosphere, composition and structure; Atmospheric circulation; Atmospheric temperature; Dew point; Fog; Greenhouse effect; Hydrologic cycle; Weather forecasting; Weather mapping; Weather modification; Wind chill; Wind shear.


Resources

books

Drye, Willie, The Storm of the Century: The Labor Day Hurricane of 1935. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic, 2002.

Hamblin, W.K., and Christiansen, E.H. Earth's Dynamic Systems, 9th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001.

Hancock P.L. and Skinner B.J., eds. The Oxford Companion to the Earth. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Lutgens, Frederick K., et al. The Atmosphere: A Introduction to Meteorology, 8th. ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001.

Simon, Seymore. Tornadoes New York: William Morrow, 1999.

organizations

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 14th Street and Constitution Avenue NW, Room 6013, Washington, D.C. 20230. Phone: (202) 482-6090 [cited March 3, 2003]. <http://www.noaa.gov/>.

other

National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. "El Niño theme page" [cited March 3, 2003]. <http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/elnino/nino-home.html>.


Agnes Galambosi

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