Skip to main content

The Scriptorium


In the days before the printing press, copies of books had to be created by hand. To assist in this endeavor, scriptoria (copying rooms) were established. These rooms were often cold and ill-lit, as heat and artificial light from candles were perceived to be fire hazards. In some scriptoria, someone would read the text aloud while others copied it. In monastic scriptoria, monks worked alone.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"The Scriptorium." Computer Sciences. . 16 Nov. 2018 <>.

"The Scriptorium." Computer Sciences. . (November 16, 2018).

"The Scriptorium." Computer Sciences. . Retrieved November 16, 2018 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.